The project has been carried out as part of the HSE Program of Fundamental Studies.
Research Purpose: To develop models that test the influences of individual values and social capital on economically productive, creative, and innovative behaviour in different regions of Russia, and to explain the processes underlying these influences.
Research Object: The socio-cultural predictors (values and social capital) of economic and creative behaviour.
Empirical Base of the Research: Two types of studies formed the empirical base of the research.
- A series of pre-test studies (the overall number of respondents was 1,967) that were undertaken to develop and test research instruments for a representative socio-psychological study. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) were applied to the results obtained in these pre-test studies.
- A representative socio-psychological study was conducted in the Central and North Caucasian Federal districts of Russia. The effective sample size is 2,061 interviewed respondents, aged 18-60: 1,026 finished interviews in the Central Federal district and 1,035 – in the North Caucasian Federal district. Empirical data obtained in this study has been prepared for an analysis that is planned for the year 2013.
Research Results: A questionnaire for a representative empirical study in two regions of Russia was constructed and tested. The said questionnaire includes methods for evaluating value orientations, creative and innovative behaviour, social capital, various economic attitudes, and individual orientations. Also the special technique (built according to A. Aizen's Theory of Planned Behaviour) was implemented in the questionnaire. The technique makes it possible to evaluate the implementation intention for entrepreneurial activity.
Apart from testing instruments for a representative field study, substantive research results were obtained during the pre-test studies. These results correspond to the technical project's goals and tasks:
- Results show that the Russian version of the value questionnaire of Shwartz’s revised theory of values is a precise instrument for evaluating 19 values as well as for conducting research on different levels of abstraction: ten, four, and even two blocks of values in the dimension of motivational hierarchy.
- Conducted research based on the revised values theory demonstrates discriminant, convergent, and construct validity of the revised theory, and the measurement instrument based on it. Nonetheless, we did not confirm our hypothesis concerning the increased predictive and explanatory preciseness of the revised theory in regard to attitudes and beliefs, in comparison to the classic theory.
- Results show that values are related to specific components of social capital such as trust, state identity, and tolerance for other cultural groups. Three samples (Russian, Chechen, and Ingush) were used as an example to demonstrate that intercultural differences influence individual values regarding social capital.
- Significant interrelations of values, motivation, creativity, and attitudes toward innovation were discovered. Our hypothesis concerning the influence of perceived social capital on the motivation of creative behaviour, and th demonstration of creative behaviour in different fields and on attitudes toward innovations, was not confirmed.
- Significant relations were shown between particular components of social capital and intentions to start a new business. This relation is an indirect one: social capital is related to psychological factors (according to A. Aizen's theory, those factors are perceived norms, perceived behavioural control, and attitudes to behaviour), that underlie intentions for entrepreneurial activity.
- It was shown that the integral construct of attitude to private property is formed by the following set of components: attitudes toward private forms of property, independence from the state, deregulation of various property objects, privatization of public services, non-interference by the state in the economics and distribution of income, a concept about the benefits of competition, and a tolerant attitude towards foreigners who own property in Russia.
- With the help of structural equation modeling, it was demonstrated that Russians' individual values influence their attitudes toward private property.
Implementation of the Research Results: The results of this study can be used for constructing special federal programs aimed for the modernization and socio-economic development of Russian society. The developed instrument (methods for exploring values, creative behaviour, and entrepreneurial behaviour) can be used by researchers of the socio-psychological and sociological framework. Also the results obtained can be used for teaching as a part of such courses as social psychology, cross-cultural psychology, and economic psychology.
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