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Values and Economic Behaviour: Testing Explanatory Models in Experiments and Field Studies

Priority areas of development: sociology
2012
The project has been carried out as part of the HSE Program of Fundamental Studies.

Research Purpose: To develop models that test the influences of individual values and social capital on economically productive, creative, and innovative behaviour in different regions of Russia, and to explain the processes underlying these influences.

Research Object:
The socio-cultural predictors (values and social capital) of economic and creative behaviour.

Empirical Base of the Research: Two types of studies formed the empirical base of the research.
  •  A series of pre-test studies (the overall number of respondents was 1,967) that were undertaken to develop and test research instruments for a representative socio-psychological study. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) were applied to the results obtained in these pre-test studies.
  •  A representative socio-psychological study was conducted in the Central and North Caucasian Federal districts of Russia. The effective sample size is 2,061 interviewed respondents, aged 18-60: 1,026 finished interviews in the Central Federal district and 1,035 – in the North Caucasian Federal district. Empirical data obtained in this study has been prepared for an analysis that is planned for the year 2013.
Research Results: A questionnaire for a representative empirical study in two regions of Russia was constructed and tested. The said questionnaire includes methods for evaluating value orientations, creative and innovative behaviour, social capital, various economic attitudes, and individual orientations. Also the special technique (built according to A. Aizen's Theory of Planned Behaviour) was implemented in the questionnaire. The technique makes it possible to evaluate the implementation intention for entrepreneurial activity.

Apart from testing instruments for a representative field study, substantive research results were obtained during the pre-test studies. These results correspond to the technical project's goals and tasks:
  •  Results show that the Russian version of the value questionnaire of Shwartz’s revised theory of values is a precise instrument for evaluating 19 values as well as for conducting research on different levels of abstraction: ten, four, and even two blocks of values in the dimension of motivational hierarchy.
  •  Conducted research based on the revised values theory demonstrates discriminant, convergent, and construct validity of the revised theory, and the measurement instrument based on it. Nonetheless, we did not confirm our hypothesis concerning the increased predictive and explanatory preciseness of the revised theory in regard to attitudes and beliefs, in comparison to the classic theory.
  •  Results show that values are related to specific components of social capital such as trust, state identity, and tolerance for other cultural groups. Three samples (Russian, Chechen, and Ingush) were used as an example to demonstrate that intercultural differences influence individual values regarding social capital.
  •  Significant interrelations of values, motivation, creativity, and attitudes toward innovation were discovered. Our hypothesis concerning the influence of perceived social capital on the motivation of creative behaviour, and th demonstration of creative behaviour in different fields and on attitudes toward innovations, was not confirmed.
  •  Significant relations were shown between particular components of social capital and intentions to start a new business. This relation is an indirect one: social capital is related to psychological factors (according to A. Aizen's theory, those factors are perceived norms, perceived behavioural control, and attitudes to behaviour), that underlie intentions for entrepreneurial activity.
  •  It was shown that the integral construct of attitude to private property is formed by the following set of components: attitudes toward private forms of property, independence from the state, deregulation of various property objects, privatization of public services, non-interference by the state in the economics and distribution of income, a concept about the benefits of competition, and a tolerant attitude towards foreigners who own property in Russia.
  •  With the help of structural equation modeling, it was demonstrated that  Russians' individual values influence their attitudes toward private property.
Implementation of the Research Results: The results of this study can be used for constructing special federal programs aimed for the modernization and socio-economic development of Russian society. The developed instrument (methods for exploring values, creative behaviour, and entrepreneurial behaviour) can be used by researchers of the socio-psychological and sociological framework. Also the results obtained can be used for teaching as a part of such courses as social psychology, cross-cultural psychology, and economic psychology.

Publications:


Бушина Е. В., Лебедева Н. М. Взаимосвязи показателей социального капитала и отношения к инновациям С. 560-569.
Бушина Е. В. Изучение взаимосвязей социального капитала и отношения к инновациям // В кн.: Психология индивидуальности: материалы IV Всероссийской научной конференции, г. Москва, 22–24 ноября 2012 г. / Отв. ред.: А. Б. Купрейченко, В. А. Штроо; науч. ред.: Н. В. Антонова, А. К. Болотова, В. П. Зинченко, Н. Л. Иванова, А. Карпов, А. Н. Лебедева, Д. А. Леонтьев, А. Б. Орлов, Е. Н. Осин, В. А. Петровский, А. В. Россохин, В. П. Серкин, Е. Б. Старовойтенко, А. Ю. Чепуренко, Б. В. Чернышев, В. Д. Шадриков, В. Б. Шумский. М. : Логос, 2012.
Saris W. E., Knoppen D., Schwartz S. Operationalizing the theory of human values: Balancing homogeneity of reflective items and theoretical coverage // Survey Research Methods. 2013. Vol. 7. No. 1. P. 29-44.
Chirkov V., Molodtsova I. Social Capital, Motivational Autonomy and Health-Related Behavior in Canadian and Russian Youth, in: Social Psychology Dynamics / Ed. by D. Chadee, A. Kostic. Kingston : University of the West Indies Press, 2012. Ch. 10. P. 211-243.
Schwartz S., Licht A., Siegel J. Egalitarianism, Cultural Distance, and FDI: A New Approach // Organization Science. 2013
Lebedeva N., Bushina E., Cherkasova L. L. Values and social capital as predictors of attitudes towards innovation / NRU Higher School of Economics. Series SOC "Sociology". 2012. No. 10/SOC/2012.
Lebedeva N., Schmidt P. Values and Attitudes towards Innovation among Canadian, Chinese and Russian Students / NRU Higher School of Economics. Series SOC "Sociology". 2012. No. 04/SOC/2012.
Бушина Е. В., Лебедева Н. М. Взаимосвязи показателей социального капитала и отношения к инновациям С. 560-569.
Лебедева Н. М. Имплицитные теории креативности и инноваций: межкультурные различия С. 505-516.
Лебедева Н. М. Ценности и имплицитные теории инновативности: кросс-культурный анализ // В кн.: Теоретические проблемы этнической и кросс-культурной психологии: материалы Третьей международной научной конференции 24-25 мая 2012 г. Том 1 / Отв. ред.: В. В. Гриценко. Т. 1: Проблемы методологии этнической и кросс-культурной психологии. Смоленск : Маджента, 2012. С. 205-211.
Бушина Е. В., Лебедева Н. М. Социальный капитал и отношение к инновациям: кроссрегиональный анализ // В кн.: Теоретические проблемы этнической и кросс-культурной психологии: материалы Третьей международной научной конференции 24-25 мая 2012 г. Том 1 / Отв. ред.: В. В. Гриценко. Т. 1: Проблемы методологии этнической и кросс-культурной психологии. Смоленск : Маджента, 2012. С. 166-170.
Шварц Ш. Х., Бутенко Т. П., Седова Д. С., Липатова А. С. Уточненная теория базовых индивидуальных ценностей: применение в России // Психология. Журнал Высшей школы экономики. 2012. Т. 9. № 2. С. 43-70.
Schwartz S., Davidov E., Schmidt P. Introduction to the special issue on the theory of human values // Survey Research Methods. 2012. No. 6. P. 1-2.
Schwartz S., Cieciuch J. The number of distinct basic values and their structure assessed by PVQ-40 // Journal of Personality Assessment. 2012. Vol. 94. No. 3. P. 321-328. doi
Schwartz S., Vecchione M., Caprara G. V., Schoen H., Gonsales Castro J. The role of personal values and basic traits in perceptions of the consequences of immigration: A three nation study // British Journal of Psychology. 2012. Vol. 103. No. 3. P. 359-377. doi
Григорян Л. К., Лепшокова З. Х., Рябиченко Т. А. Эмпирическая модель взаимосвязи гражданской идентичности и установок по отношению к иммигрантам с экономическими представлениями россиян // В кн.: XIII Международная научная конференция по проблемам развития экономики и общества. В 4 кн. Кн. 2. / Отв. ред.: Е. Г. Ясин. Кн. 2. М. : Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2012. С. 483-491.
Schmidt P., Frese M., Bausch A., Rauch A., Kabst R. Evidence-based entrepreneurship: Cumulative science, action principles, and bridging the gap between science and practice // Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship. 2012. Vol. 8. No. 1. P. 1-62. doi
Schmidt P., Davidov E., Voelkle M. C., Oud J. H. An SEM Approach to Continuous Time Modeling of Panel Data: Relating Authoritarianism and Anomia // Psychological methods. 2012. Vol. 17. No. 2. P. 176-192.
Davidov E., Dülmer H., Schlüter E., Schmidt P., Meuleman B. Using a Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling Approach to Explain Cross-Cultural Measurement Noninvariance // Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 2012. Vol. 43. No. 4. P. 558-575. doi
Schmidt P., Schwartz S., Beierlein C., Davidov E., Rammstedt B. Testing the discriminant validity of Schwartz’ Portrait Value Questionnaire items – A replication and extension of Knoppen and Saris (2009) // Survey Research Methods. 2012. Vol. 1. No. 6. P. 25-36.
Лебедева Н. М. Культура, имплицитные теории креативности и отношение к инновациям // В кн.: Актуальные проблемы теоретической и прикладной психологии: традиции и перспективы. Материалы Всероссийской научно-практической конференции, 2011. В 3 частях Ч. 3. Яр. : ЯрГУ им. П. Г. Демидова, 2012. С. 628-632.
Tatarko A. Are Individual Value Orientations Related to Socio-Psychological Capital? A Comparative Analysis Data from Three Ethnic Groups in Russia / Университет Барселоны. Series WP5 "SEARCH Working Paper". 2013. No. WP5/04.
Tatarko A., Schmidt P. Social Capital and Attitudes towards Money / NRU Higher School of Economics. Series SOC "Sociology". 2012. No. 07/SOC/2012.
Schwartz S., Cieciuch J., Vecchione M., Davidov E., Fischer R., Beierlein C., Ramos A., Verkasalo M., Lonnqvist J., Demirutku K., Dirilen-Gumus O., Konty M. Refining the theory of basic individual values // Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2012. Vol. 103. No. 4. P. 663-688. doi
Лебедева Н. М. Вклад кросс-культурной психологии в задачи социального развития // Психология. Журнал Высшей школы экономики. 2012. Т. 9. № 1. С. 20-22.
Schmidt P., Glaum M., Street D. L., Vogel S. Compliance with IFRS 3- and IAS36-required disclosures across 17 European countries: company- and country-level determinants // Accounting and Business Research. 2013. Vol. 43. No. 3. P. 1-42. doi
Лебедева Н. М. Имплицитные теории инновативности: межкультурные различия // Психология. Журнал Высшей школы экономики. 2012. Т. 9. № 2. С. 89-106.
Leong С., Torres C., Smith P., Lebedeva N., Achoui M., Budhwar P. Are indigenous approaches to achieving influence in business organizations distinctive? A comparative study of Guanxi, Wasta, Jeitinho, Svyazi, and pulling strings // International Journal of Human Resource Management. 2012. Vol. 23. No. 2. P. 333-348. doi
Leung K., Ben L., Bond M., Conway L., Gornick L., Amponsah B., Boehnke K., Dragolov G., Burgess S., Golestaneh M., Busch H., Hofer J., del Espinosa A., Fardis M., Ismail R., Kurman J., Lebedeva N., Tatarko A., Sam D., Teixeira M., Yamaguchi S., Fukuzawa A., Zhang J., Zhou F. Developing and evaluating the social axioms survey in eleven countries: Its relationship with the five-factor model of personality // Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 2012. Vol. 43. No. 5. P. 833-857. doi
Лебедева Н. М. Социокультурные факторы отношения к инновациям // В кн.: XII Международная научная конференция по проблемам развития экономики и общества. В четырех книгах. Книга 3. / Отв. ред.: Е. Г. Ясин. Кн. 3. М. : Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2012. С. 77-86.
Лебедева Н. М. Ценности культуры и имплицитные теории инновативности // Общественные науки и современность. 2012. № 5. С. 25-40.
Lebedeva N., Tatarko A. Values of Russians: the Dynamics and Relations towards Economic Attitudes / NRU Higher School of Economics. Series SOC "Sociology". 2012. No. 03/SOC/2012.
Осипова Е., Лебедева Н. М. Взаимосвязи показателей социального капитала и отношения к инновациям // В кн.: XIII Международная научная конференция по проблемам развития экономики и общества. В 4 кн. Кн. 2. / Отв. ред.: Е. Г. Ясин. Кн. 2. М. : Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2012. С. 560-570.
Лебедева Н. М. Имплицитные теории креативности и инноваций: межкультурные различия // В кн.: XIII Международная научная конференция по проблемам развития экономики и общества. В 4 кн. Кн. 2. / Отв. ред.: Е. Г. Ясин. Кн. 2. М. : Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2012. С. 505-515.
Tatarko A., Schmidt P. Social Capital And Attitudes Towards Money / Университет Барселоны. Series WP5 "SEARCH Working Paper". 2013. No. WP5/03.
Schmidt P., Tatarko A. Entrepreneurial Intention, Values, and the Reasoned Action Approach: Results from a Russian Population Survey // The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal. 2013