The project has been carried out as part of the HSE Program of Fundamental Studies.
The research project covered a broad range of topics centered focusing at methods and tools for measuring the efficiency of science, technology and innovation (STI) policy instruments. In addition, the applicability of these methods and tools to Russia is a subject of research. The project was structured in 8 core projects:
1) A new classification of methods and tools for S&T policy priority-setting
Within the framework of this research, world experiences in S&T priority-setting of different countries and regions were analyzed. This work focused on the organizational and methodological support of this process. The study found and described the main methods and tools for priority-setting to government STI policy. These methods were classified using different criteria. The main approaches for STI priority formulation were identified which can be used for the design of a methodological framework for a new research project on setting S&T priorities.
2) A comparative quantitative analysis of the efficiency of national innovation systems (NIS)
The study analyzes the latest theoretical developments in the field of parametric and non-parametric frontier approaches for assessing the efficiency of complex objects. The analysis also highlights the key benefits of nonparametric methods of the frontier analysis of the efficiency of national innovation systems. A preliminary evaluation of national innovation systems’ (NIS) efficiency was carried out for a sample of 54 countries using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) method for identifying the opportunities and limitations of this method for this evaluating approach. Also a comprehensive analysis of the key indicators of NIS development in the studied sample of countries was done. Finally, recommendations for the modernization of STI policy in the Russian Federation were developed.
3) Identification of new economic and society trends emerging in line with the green growth paradigm
The study aimed to identify new occurrences and processes in economy and society that appeared out of the green growth paradigm, focused primarily on Russia. The dynamics of green innovation activity in the Russian extractive and manufacturing sectors were analyzed using data from the Russian Statistical Office and the outcomes of a HSE-led innovation activity survey. As a result of the study, the dynamics of green innovation activities of Russian companies were characterized. The main economic and social factors contributing to the green economic growth of Russian oil and gas companies were identified. The outcomes of this research may be used for advanced applied studies of green innovations at sectoral and micro levels, as well as STI policy aimed at stimulating these innovations for future STI policy-making in this area.
4) An empirical assessment of the role of user innovation in Russia
This research project was devoted to a pioneering empirical study of user innovation in Russia. The survey focused on product innovation and was comprised of five parts: 1) share of user-innovators and their socio-demographic profile; 2) motivation for innovation activity at home; 3) demand for innovative products; 4) interest in innovative products; 5) channels of information diffusion used by user-innovators. The study demonstrated that user innovation in Russia has a high level of incidence amongst general consumer population and that a bigger share of user innovation products consisted of product improvement (as opposed to product creation from the scratch). Moreover, user innovation activity was found to vary substantially between different types of establishments. An important share of innovations was found in the medium sized cities and towns. The study of the dynamics of user engagement in innovation activities in medium sized cities and towns shows that user innovation ability is in fact dependent on market offers. One of the most important interim conclusions from this work is that user innovation provides additional insights into unsatisfied demand and inadequate supply. Data on user innovation is therefore important to design demand-driven strategies at company level, but also on a broader scale (industry, regional level, etc.).
5) Test of a newly developed Foresight evaluation methodology on the example of Russian Foresight studies
The integrated approach to the Foresight studies efficiency evaluation developed in an earlier project phase was tested using two Russian Foresight studies: 1) National S&T Foresight: 2030; 2) the roadmap “Nanotechnologies and nanomaterials for the nuclear energy sector”. In result the methodology was finetuned. First of all, two additional stages were included in the evaluation process: benchmarking and creation of an information base for the evaluation. Another result of the test was that it showed the need to add criteria to the stage “assessing the project according to evaluation topics”, for instance, qualification and experience level of a project team, and methods’ synergy and diversity.
6) The development of a roadmapping methodology for emerging technologies
The main objective of this study was to develop a methodology for roadmaps for emerging technologies based on the analysis of existing approaches. Practical experience in roadmapping accumulated in the U.S., EU, Russia and other countries were used as an empirical base for the study. The most appropriate expert methods for analyzing emerging technologies were identified. On this basis, methods for summarizing the results of expert procedures for the construction of roadmaps were developed. The results are of practical importance for the implementation of the Emerging Technologies’ Foresight Project in Russia.
7) The analysis of international publication strategies of Russian social scientists (economists) during the period 1993-2010
The analysis of informational structure of the Web of Science database and the improvement of meta-information of the Russian sector of this database was one of the main aims of this study. The dynamics of new publications and the study of dependence of results from types of informational queries and from errors of affiliations of scientists were investigated. Very important work in the harmonization of names of scientific organizations indexed in the Web of Science and of upgrading of Russian sector of the database has been initiated. Furthermore, sociological and bibliometric analysis of publication strategies of Russian researchers in social sciences in 1993-2010 was done using the example of publications by Russian economists indexed in the Web of Science.
8) Proposals for the improvement of S&T policy to stimulate patenting and licensing activity
An analysis of the existing market for knowledge and technology in Russia was conducted, based on patent and licensing data, with a view to identifying the main barriers that could be removed through appropriate policy initiatives. A comparative study of technology transfer in Russia and abroad by category of contracts, based on national statistics and OECD data, identified the major structural changes in a groups of countries - exporters and importers of Russian technologies. On this basis, proposals for the improvement of S&T policy to stimulate patenting and licensing activities were developed. In addition, the project outlined new methodological approaches for monitoring and assessing the effectiveness of policies and institutions regarding the creation, legal protection, use and transfer of intellectual property.