1. Research object: In year 2012 the research project continued the studies of actors and actor types within innovation systems, behavioral patterns and linkages as well as factors that determine the innovation process characteristics.
2. Research objectives:
- Providing theoretical and practical concepts, methodologies, tools and instruments for analyzing the national innovation system and the behavior of and interactions among its elements.
- Studying individual actors and actor types within the innovation system, exploring and understanding the specificities of their organisation and behavior, how these features are determined and are evolving, and how agency is expressed in their objectives and strategies.
- Developing policy- and strategy-relevant knowledge about innovation processes and systems, including analysis of the institutional and contextual influences upon the direction, extent, and efficiency of innovation efforts.
3. Empirical base of the research:
- The study of innovation activities of innovation enterprises utilize the methodological, analytical and reference materials, published in the framework of EMS project; methodological manuals for national EMS survey in Germany; ; results of 2009-2010 surveys of enterprises’ innovation activities (HSE). Surveys of intellectual service providers and consumers (HSE).
- The monitoring of innovation activities of R&D organizations was carried out on the basis of results of statistical surveys of Russian R&D organizations (Federal statistical survey by official standards “2-science” and “2-science (NTK); results of 2010-2011 surveys of R&D organisations’ innovation activity; methodological and analytical materials published in the framework of other ROSSTAT surveys and surveys implemented by foreign statistical services.
- Surveys of the activities of innovation behavior of population (HSE)
This year’s research focused on the following areas:
- Empirical studies of innovation behavior of enterprises:
The studies resulted in developing a methodology for comparative analysis of innovation processes within different environments (e.g. innovation systems of different countries) based on the knowledge production functions concept. This methodology was tested for estimating innovation process characteristics in Russian manufacturing.
- Research and technology organizations and their role in a national innovation system:
Developing models of RTO functioning enabled an empirical analysis of regional patterns of RTO performance, strategies for technology transfer and key factors determining the intensity and efficiency of these activities. The typologies introduced describing key specificities of the Russian RTO system, allowing us to address the issues of efficiency evaluation and the identification of possible areas for state policy intervention.
- Knowledge-intensive business services markets: modeling producers and consumers behavior
We developed and evaluated the model of client-producer of intellectual services on the basis of the available survey data on Russian intellectual services markets. The estimation demonstrated the special role of customers of intellectual services that results in biased regimes of competition between the knowledge producers and raises the question of intellectual service market efficiency.
- Conceptual approaches to measuring emerging technologies;
The synthesis of international approaches to the identification and empirical observation of emerging technologies resulted in a conceptual framework for statistical measurement of emerging technologies and a set of methodological guidelines to develop statistical observation of technologies.
- Analysis of technology level and technology strategies of the companies;
Research in this area focused on looking at the existing practices of assessment and measurement of the technology strategies of companies. Based on this overview, we developed and implemented a conceptual framework for analyzing the technology-related strategy making of oil and gas companies.
- Public perception and attitudes towards S&T.
Key focus for this year was the analysis of household-level data in Russia and Europe with regard to their attitudes on innovation. The study produced empirical evidence of the link between the amount of professional knowledge and the skepticism towards new technologies. It appeared that the people with an advanced background tend to be more concerned with the potential risks of novel technologies.
7. Assessing engineers’ professional competencies
The study proposed a methodology of measuring competences of highly-skilled professionals. This methodology was tested using Russian and European data. Key estimation results prove the differences in the organization and coordination of collective work, time management and critical assessment of ideas.
The ongoing research results were published in the following book contributions and articles in the peer-reviewed international journals:
- Gokhberg L., Fursov K., Karasev O. Nanotechnology development and regulatory framework: The case of Russia. Technovation, 2012. № 32 (3-4).
- Gokhberg L., Roud V. The Russian Federation: A new innovation policy for sustainable growth. In: Global Innovation Index 2012, INSEAD.
- Gstraunthaler T., Cramer P. Let’s make money - the South African financial system for start-up companies. Competition and Change, Vol 16 (2012), No. 1.
- Gstraunthaler T., Novoseltsev A. The Higher School of Economics: an illustration of an entrepreneurial focus within the “new” Russian university environment. In: Do we need the entrepreneurial university? A triple helix perspective, M.Dabić, 2012. Zagreb: Faculty of Economics and Business.
- Gstraunthaler T., Piber M. The Performance of Museums and other Cultural Institutions: Numbers or Genuine Judgements? International Studies of Management & Organization (IBSS), Vol. 42 (2012), No. 2.
- Gstraunthaler T., Proskuryakova L. Enabling innovation in extractive industries in emerging markets. Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice (SSCI), Vol 14 (2012), Issue 1.
- Gstraunthaler, T., Proskuryakova, L. Changing priorities towards environmental management in the strategy making of Russian oil- and gas producers. Business Strategy and the Environment (accepted).
- Miles I. Dynamic Foresight Evaluation. Foresight vol. 14 (2012), Issue 1.
- Miles I. KIBS And Knowledge Dynamics In Client-Supplier Interaction. In: In: Eleonora Di Maria, Roberto Grandinetti, and Barbara Di Bernardo (eds) 2012 Exploring Knowledge-Intensive Business Services, Knowledge Management Strategies, London, Palgrave.
5. Implementation of the research results:
- methodological tools for analysis of innovation activities of enterprises and R&D organisations;
- producing new empirical evidence relevant for evaluating Russian S&T and innovation performance and producing implications for policy;
- development of analytical, legislative and inquiry materials for the Russian Government and regional authorities.
6. International partners:
- Arundel, A., UNU-MERIT, The Netherlands;
- Galindo Rueda, F. OECD directorate
- Lazonick, W., MIT, US, INSEAD;
- Linton, J., University of Ottawa, Canada;
- Perani, G., ISTAT, Italy;
- Shapira Ph., Georgia Institute of Technology, US.