The purpose of the research is to compare the ontological presuppositions of different interpretations of the concepts of 'negation' and 'negativity' in the history of philosophy and logic, and to demonstrate the key transformations of these categories in a modern continental and analytic philosophy. To achieve this goal, research objectives were set in three interrelated areas: 1) semantic and pragmatic aspects of assertion and negation (in logical and linguistic perspectives); 2) the categories of 'nothingness' and 'negativity' in classical and modern philosophy; and 3) subjectivity as negativity.
The research methodology involves methods of analytical philosophy, phenomenology, and hermeneutics, and a rich conceptual apparatus of formal semantics and pragmatics.
The results of the study include the identification of the genesis of the modern European ontology of negativity, the explication of the variety of interpretations of the categories 'negation' and 'negativity', a historical and logical systematic overview of the consequences that entails the selection of a particular ontology of negativity for recognizing the correctness of certain types of logical operations and communicative acts.
Participants of the project developed modifications of the semantics of impossible and inaccessible worlds, two-dimensional semantics, and logical pragmatics. By means of hermeneutical and comparative-historical methods, current trends in substantive and subjective approaches to negativity in the Early Modern period were identified; the fatal flaw of the substantial approach to negativity was shown.
The strategies of the thematization of the 'negative' as the basis of a transition from fundamental ontology to the fundamental anthropology, as well as various ways to incorporate negativity into reality (social relations, morality, art, and education), were systematized.
The result of the research project is a collection of papers Ontology of Negativity (in Russian and English) that is ready for publication (it includes the original papers of the participants). An international Ontology Negativity conference, organized by the HSE Faculty of Philosophy, was held on October 22-23, 2013. Together with foreign scholars and philosophers from different Russian cities, all of the research project participants took part in the conference.
Another result of the study is the publication of papers in international peer-reviewed journals: papers in English in the journal NeuroQuantology (included in the Scopus database, authored by T. Lifintseva); two papers in French in the journal Cahiers de philosophie de l'Université de Caen (authored by E. Dragalina-Chernaya) and the electronic journal Savoir en Prisme (authored by A. Yastrebtseva).
The theoretical results of the study are being included in courses on logic, ontology, epistemology, the history of philosophy, cultural studies, as well as in Master's and PhD theses.
Among the project's international participants are Gilles Olivo (PhD, Department of Philosophy, University of Caen Lower Normandy, France; Professor http://ufrschomme.unicaen.fr/recherche/mrsh/annuaire/506881); Fabien Schang(PhD, Moscow State University, Assistant Professor; Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France, Laboratory of the History of Science and Philosophy Henri Poincaré, Associated Member http://poincare.univ-lorraine.fr/); Andrew Haas (PhD, HSE Faculty of Philosophy, Associate Professor, http://www.hse.ru/org/persons/93664928), Stefan Hessbrüggen-Walter (PhD, HSE Faculty of Philosophy, Assistant Professor, http://www.hse.ru/org/persons/93664948).