Our research aims to fill this gap and to elaborate a theoretical and methodological frame for studying the impact of non-institutional factors on socio- political processes. The major non-institutional factor we analyze is value heterogeneity. The authors developed and verified a theoretical model of value heterogeneity as a driver of social development and demonstrated that it can be measured both quantitatively and qualitatively.
During this stage of research we continue to study the value heterogeneity impact on social dynamics. However, the object of research differs from the previous stages. We analyze social groups chosen on grounds of ethnocultural characteristics rather than social, professional, socio- economic or political characteristics that we investigated earlier. This expanded significantly the range of value heterogeneity characteristics under the study.
The research deals with identity construction of migrants in Russia and identity construction of Russians abroad, as well as the institutional and legal framework of immigration flows in Russia. Our approach addresses a set of different but overlapping migrant flows across Russia: those who left, those who came and those who returned. This approach allows us to investigate empirically the construction of meanings by migrants, as well as their construction of boundaries of inclusion and exclusion in legal and political fields.
The subject being analyzed in this study is the nature of migration flows from Russia and in Russia and the role of value orientations in this process.
The goal of this research stage is to provide an insight into Russia’s place in the framework of global migration flows, and to identify the main obstacles to full integration of migrants in the host society (using the examples of Russia and the United States).
In the first part of the project we address the problem of emigration to the U.S.. The object of research are Russian migrants living there. Methodology for studying the migration to the U.S. is based on a narratological approach to the construction of identity. The method is based on narrative interviews with Russian immigrants living in the United States, both face-to-face and via Skype.
The second part of the project concerns two aspects of migration. On the one hand we consider labor migrants to Russia; on the other hand we study the resettlement of compatriots in Russia. As for the first aspect, the empirical basis of this part of the project is in-depth interviews with labor migrants from Central Asia, currently residing in Moscow.
The analysis of resettlement of compatriots is based on Russian legislation regulating immigration flows. To understand the ideological and practical components of the compatriots resettlement program, we compare the Russian program with similar programs of repatriation in Germany and Kazakhstan. The methodology of our analysis is based on comparing the "most similar case studies". So, the state programs of repatriation were the object of study.
The results of the project afford ground for theoretical and methodological recommendations. As for practical recommendations, first of all Russia needs a new approach to the formulation of federal programs and laws governing migration. We suggest that the implementation of bureaucratic procedures associated with stimulating labor flows in Russia should be connected with an ideological understanding of institutions such as Russian citizenship and permanent residence in the territory of the Russian Federation. The lack of an ideological component in migration legislation will not satisfy the long-term strategic vision of the future of the Russian Federation on the one hand, and on the other will not provide incentives and quality of life for immigrants in the Russian Federation either. If migration is based solely on the practical needs of the country's population and regions, bureaucratic procedures will not be effective. International experience and the research results clearly indicate that the effectiveness of immigration legislation and quality of migrants’ lives in Russia can only be achieved through a broader formulation of the government's ideological position on these issues.