• A
  • A
  • A
  • ABC
  • ABC
  • ABC
  • А
  • А
  • А
  • А
  • А
Regular version of the site

Forming effective science, technology and innovation policy:methods and instruments

Priority areas of development: economics
2013
The project has been carried out as part of the HSE Program of Fundamental Studies.

A summary of topics focused at methods and instruments for effective science, technology and innovation (STI) policy and their applicability to Russia was considered. 

There are six core projects:

1.  Analysis of best practices bottom-up approaches for S&T priority-setting.

2. Comparative analysis of quantitative methods for the evaluation of the efficiency of national innovation systems.

3. New approaches for improving policy instruments to promote energy efficiency.

4. Identification of key factors for a better integration of foresight into policy making.

5. Development of a roadmapping methodology for corporations.

6. Bibliometric analysis of Russian publications in Web of Science based on geographical distribution.

1. Analysis of best practices bottom-up approaches for S&T priority-setting describes the main features of successful S&T priority-setting processes that use a bottom-up approach. More than 20 foresight studies have been considered. The priority setting process can differ, however usually the three main steps are: 1. gathering proposals; 2. agreeing on a draft extended list of possible priorities, 3. identification of key priorities lists through expert discussions. During this process conventional methods like workshops, scenario seminars, focus groups, and surveys are used. In addition, in order to intensify the involvement of society there might also be applied citizen panels as well as other appropriate methods.

2. Comparative analysis of quantitative methods for the evaluation of the efficiency of national innovation systems (NIS). A variety of international databases and other information sources containing data on R&D statistics and overall economic growth were used, including those produced by UN, UNIDO, UNESCO, IMF, Elsevier (Scopus), World Intellectual Property Organization, International Labour Organization et al.

Data envelopment analysis (DEA) was utilised for analysis and in depth elaboration as previous empirical works have demonstrated the efficiency of this method for measuring NIS efficiency. The project findings confirm the utility of the DEA method for measuring the efficiency of national innovation systems.

3. New approaches for improving policy instruments to promote energy efficiency  identifies the science, technology and innovation policy measures applied by Russia and other countries for advancing energy efficiency and renewables. Government policy instruments in energy efficiency and renewables were reviewed for: Great Britain, Germany, Italy, Canada, the USA, France, Japan, EU and BRIC countries. Documents of international organisations, recommendations and forecasts produced by expert organisations and companies were also assessed. The review was performed using comparative policy analysis methods (document analysis, policy mapping and stakeholder analysis), which were further advanced. The study identifies the key approaches to stimulating energy efficiency and renewables used by developed and emerging economies in designing STI policy. Practices in place in other jurisdictions were compared with the Russian practice.

4. Identification of key factors for a better integration of foresight into policy making  focuses on better understanding the key factors determining the successful application of foresight to policy needs. On the basis of the literature review, a typology of foresight functions was drawn, including: information, communication, strategy and transformation. Six groups of factors that condition the integration of foresight into policy making have been identified. (1) Factors, which apply to the pre-foresight phase. (2) Factors related to the organisation of a foresight study. (3) Factors related to the form of presentation of foresight results. (4) The content of represented results. (5) Contextual factors, economic, political, institutional issues, resources and other environments of foresight studies.

5. Development of a roadmapping methodology for corporations. While practical experience exists, there is no comprehensive approach for using foresight and roadmapping to solve management problems.

Existing literature regarding the theory and practices of foresight and roadmaps was examined and the analysis of the existing classifications of foresight studies - in terms of their use in business management - was made. Existing theoretical approaches to and practical experience of corporate foresight at transnational companies were reviewed for: Shell, DaimlerChrysler (now DaimlerBenz), BASF, Philips, Deutsche Bank and others. On this basis a comprehensive methodology for corporate foresight (including roadmapping) was created. This approach provides the set of possible trajectories of innovation development. Each trajectory is a sequence of organisational actions and required R&D that are necessary for the introduction of new technological solutions and the development of innovation products offering new potentials to the user.

6. Bibliometric analysis of Russian publications in Web of Science based on geographical distribution. The research was devoted to the analysis of particular aspects of scientific production: (1) geographical structure of indexed Russian scientific publications and (2) Russian-European research collaboration in 2002-2011.

Analysis of publications for 1990-2012 showed that Russian science is geographically structured along two principal axes. (a) The distribution of a number of publications between Moscow and St-Petersburg.  (b) A similar distribution between big agglomerations (Moscow, St-Petersburg, Novosibirsk and so on) and small cities — the so called naukograds.

Within this research, Russian-European research cooperation during 2002-2011 was analysed from viewpoint of types and patterns of this cooperation, dynamics of joint publications and a level of Russian-European research collaborations.

The following foreign researchers have participated in these research projects:

1) L. Pascal, University of Quebec in Montreal, Canada (http://www.uqam.ca/ )

2) X. Lan,Tsinghua University, China (http://www.tsinghua.edu.cn/publish/then/)

3) L. Georghiou, the University of Manchester, the UK (http://www.manchester.ac.uk/research/mbs/Luke.georghiou/personaldetails)

4) P. Shapira,Georgia Institute of Technology, USA

5) Y. Gingras, the University of Quebec, Canada (http://www.histoire.uqam.ca/professeurs/index.php?id=58 )

6) J. Cassingena Harper, the National Council for Science and Technology, Malta (http://ec.europa.eu/research/sd/pdf/rd4sd/harper-cv.pdf)

7) K. Cuhls, Fraunhofer Institute forSystems and Innovation Research, Germany (http://www.isi.fraunhofer.de/isi-en/v/mitarbeiter/cu.php?WSESSIONID=a18227ea9bb 039c5254354e19d2a7db9)

8) J. Calof, the University of Ottawa, Canada (http://www.telfer.uottawa.ca/en/professor-directory/professors/calof-jonathan)

9) M.  Cervantes,OECD, France (http://www.oecd.org)

10) R. Popper, the University of Manchester, the UK (http://www.manchester.ac.uk/research/mbs/rafael.popper)

11) B. Park, Science and Technology Policy Institute, Republic of Korea (http://www.university-directory.eu/Korea-Republic/Science-and-Technology-Policy-Institute-STEPI.html#.UPqtbvJyUwo)

12) D. Mavrakis, the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece (http://en.uoa.gr/)  

Publications:


Proskuryakova L. N., Abdrakhmanova G. I., Pitlik H. Public sector e-innovations. E-government and its impact on corruption / NRU Higher School of Economics. Series WP BRP "Science, Technology and Innovation". 2013. No. 04/STI/2013.
Foresight in Russia: Implications for Policy Making, in: Science, Technology and Innovation Policy for the Future — Potentials and Limits of Foresight Studies / Ed. by Meissner, Dirk, Gokhberg, Leonid, Sokolov, Alexander. L., NY, Dordrecht, Heidelberg : Springer, 2013. P. 183-198.
Sokolov A., Chulok A., Mesropyan V. R. Long-Term Science and Technology Policy – Russian priorities for 2030 / NRU Higher School of Economics. Series WP BRP "Science, Technology and Innovation". 2013. No. 19/STI/2013.
Vishnevskiy K., Meissner D., Karasev O., Khripunova A. Intelligent Data Systems to Aid Decision-Making at Tenders for Oil and Gas Fields Development / NRU Higher School of Economics. Series WP BRP "Science, Technology and Innovation". 2013. No. WP BRP 07/STI/2013.
Ekaterina Khramova, Meissner D., Galina Sagieva. Statistical Patent Analysis Indicators as a Means of Determining Country Technological Specialisation / NRU Higher School of Economics. Series WP BRP "Science, Technology and Innovation". 2013. No. 09/STI/2013.
Kutsenko E., Meissner D. Key Features of the First Phase of the National Cluster Programme in Russia / NRU Higher School of Economics. Series WP BRP "Science, Technology and Innovation". 2013. No. 11/STI/2013.
Karasev O., Vishnevskiy K. A Toolkit for Integrated Roadmaps: Employing Nanotechnologies in Water and Wastewater Treatment, in: Science, Technology and Innovation Policy for the Future — Potentials and Limits of Foresight Studies / Ed. by Meissner, Dirk, Gokhberg, Leonid, Sokolov, Alexander. L., NY, Dordrecht, Heidelberg : Springer, 2013. P. 137-159.
Sokolova A. The integrated approach for Foresight evaluation: the Russian case / NRU Higher School of Economics. Series WP BRP "Science, Technology and Innovation". 2013. No. 20.
Sokolova A., Makarova E. A. Integrated Framework for Evaluation of National Foresight Studies, in: Science, Technology and Innovation Policy for the Future — Potentials and Limits of Foresight Studies / Ed. by Meissner, Dirk, Gokhberg, Leonid, Sokolov, Alexander. L., NY, Dordrecht, Heidelberg : Springer, 2013. P. 11-30.
Saritas O., Pace L. A., Stalpers S. I. Stakeholder Participation and Dialogue in Foresight, in: Participation and Interaction in Foresight: Dialogue, Dissemination and Visions. Cheltenham : Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013. Ch. 3. P. 35-69.
Meissner D. Instruments to measure Foresight, in: Science, Technology and Innovation Policy for the Future — Potentials and Limits of Foresight Studies / Ed. by Meissner, Dirk, Gokhberg, Leonid, Sokolov, Alexander. L., NY, Dordrecht, Heidelberg : Springer, 2013. P. 43-62.
Makarova E. A., Sokolova A. Foresight evaluation: lessons from project management // Foresight. 2014. Vol. 16. No. 1. P. 75-91. doi
Meissner D. Results and Impact of National Foresight-Studies, in: Science, Technology and Innovation Policy for the Future — Potentials and Limits of Foresight Studies / Ed. by Meissner, Dirk, Gokhberg, Leonid, Sokolov, Alexander. L., NY, Dordrecht, Heidelberg : Springer, 2013. P. 31-41.
Meissner D., Sokolov A. Foresight and Science, Technology and Innovation Indicators, in: Handbook Of Innovation Indicators And Measurement. Northampton, Cheltenham : Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013. Ch. 16. P. 381-402.
Meissner D., Gokhberg L., Sokolov A. The Meaning of Foresight for Science Technology and Innovation Policy, in: Science, Technology and Innovation Policy for the Future — Potentials and Limits of Foresight Studies / Ed. by Meissner, Dirk, Gokhberg, Leonid, Sokolov, Alexander. L., NY, Dordrecht, Heidelberg : Springer, 2013. P. 1-7.
Karasev O., Razheva (Edelkina) A. Sectoral Foresight Studies: Future Perspectives of Nanotechnologies, in: Science, Technology and Innovation Policy for the Future — Potentials and Limits of Foresight Studies / Ed. by Meissner, Dirk, Gokhberg, Leonid, Sokolov, Alexander. L., NY, Dordrecht, Heidelberg : Springer, 2013. P. 121-136.
Kotsemir M. N., Meissner D. Conceptualizing the innovation process – trends and outlook / NRU Higher School of Economics. Series WP BRP "Science, Technology and Innovation". 2013. No. 10/STI/2013. doi
Kotsemir M. N. Measuring National Innovation Systems Efficiency – a Review of DEA Approach / NRU Higher School of Economics. Series WP BRP "Science, Technology and Innovation". 2013. No. 16/STI/2013. doi
Maxim Kotsemir, Alexander Abroskin, Meissner D. Innovation Concepts and Typology – An Evolutionary Discussion / NRU Higher School of Economics. Series WP BRP "Science, Technology and Innovation". 2013. No. 05/STI/2013. doi