1. Provision of theoretical and practical concepts, methodologies, tools and data for analysing the national innovation system, and the behaviour of and interactions among its elements.
2. Study of individual actors and actor types within the innovation system, exploring and understanding the specificities of their organisation and behaviour, explaining how these features are determined and are evolving, and examining how agency is expressed in their objectives and strategies.
3. Development of policy- and strategy-relevant knowledge about innovation processes and systems, including analysis of the institutional and contextual influences upon the extent, direction, and efficiency of innovation efforts.
Empirical Base of Research:
1. Russian branch of European Manufacturing Survey (HSE Project Monitoring of Innovation Activities of Enterprises, since 2009)
2. Monitoring of Innovation Activities of Research Performing Organisations (HSE Project, since 2010).
3. Surveys of intellectual service providers and consumers (HSE).
4. Surveys of the activities of innovation behavior of population (HSE)
5. Surveys of competences and skills of highly skilled professionals (HSE)
6. Statistical indicators of science, technology and innovation
7. Expert interviews
Results of Research:
1. Innovation behavior of research organisations and their role in industry-science relations
The sectoral peculiarities of RTO innovation behavior were examined by observation of Russian research institutions grouped regarding economic activities of the customer (innovation-absorbing) enterprises. Particularly four domains were selected: agriculture; mining and quarrying; high-tech and medium-high-tech manufacturing; medium-low-tech and low-tech manufacturing. The empirical outcomes were interpreted in terms of sector-specific factors influencing technology supply properties (typical forms of transfer, level of novelty and advancement of technologies being transferred, transaction scenarios, technology implementation management, R&D staff recruitment strategies, funding schemes, etc.).
The study of technology transfer regimes was based on the same empirical base and indicators, but concerned testing of widely discussed approaches to codification and analysis of knowledge supply-oriented taxonomies of transfer modes (science based vs. development-based regimes). The correlation analysis was carried out to examine differences between sectoral RTO groups by specific markers (research, funding, transfer, commercialization and application modes) of technology transfer regimes. The outcomes confirmed hypotheses set by other international studies but at the same time revealed some country-specific characteristics determined by institutional, legal, economic and historical (path-dependency) factors.
2. Advancing approaches to the measurement of development and use of technologies and their social economic impacts
Technology measurement studies included development of conceptual and methodological models for enabling multifold observation of technologies. The methodology combining observations at various stages of technology lifecycle was proposed. The second strand of work concerned understanding self-determination practices of larger companies during the formulation and execution of technological strategies. Case study of «Russian Railroads» company was examined. The third area explored novel metrics for the development and utilization of technologies, including the attitudes of population towards novel technologies.
3. Knowledge intensive business services: actors and markets
Knowledge intensive (sometimes called intellectual) services are remarkable due to the high degree of collaboration between service providers and consumers (referred to as co-production), which is believed to remove the asymmetry of information about the service between the two parties. Yet empirical findings indicate that the two parties disagree in their estimates of the degree of customization (individualization) of the service: consumers underestimate the degree of individualization as compared to providers, which cannot be explained with asymmetric information. This year activities were focused on describing the specifics of state purchases in the sector of knowledge intensive business sectors, conditioned by existing legislature as well as the embodied system of interactions of producers and consumers of intellectual services.
4. Developing the frameworks for measuring the competencies of human resources for science and technology
Main outcomes in this area include development of the methodology for measuring perspective demand for professional competences, as well as application of this methodology for the Russian labor market of highly-skilled personnel. The empirical evidence speaks for a significant gap between the available proficiency and the expected demand for skilled labor, inducing distortions to the selection processes of the labor market.
Level of implementation, recommendations on implementation or outcomes of the implementation of Results: theresults were communicated via a number of highly praised scientific and expert platforms, including OECD Expert Groups, international conferences XIV HSE April Conference (Moscow), Micro Evidence for Innovation and Development Economies (and research seminars. The discussion of results influenced applied projects performed by HSE in the areas of policy advice, including the projects for Ministry of Economic Development, Ministry of Science and Education.
Field of application: development of theoretical and methodological approaches for the analysis of innovation systems’ components and functions; development of empirical studies of science, technology and innovation; production of policy-relevant knowledge on the approaches for stimulating the efficiency and intensity of innovation across the economy sectors.