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Values and economic behavior: an examination of explanatory models in experiments and field studies

Priority areas of development: sociology
2013
The project has been carried out as part of the HSE Program of Fundamental Studies.

Object of Research: sociocultural predictors (values ​​and social capital) of creative and entrepreneurial behavior.

Goal of Research: building models of the impact of individual values and social capital on creative and entrepreneurial behavior in different regions of Russia, and explaining  such influences.

Empirical base of Research consisted of the results of two conducted studies:

a) Results of representative socio-psychological survey conducted in Central and North Caucasus federal districts of Russia in 2012. The effective sample size was 2061 interviews with respondents aged from 18 to 60 years: 1026 completed interviews in Central Federal District, and 1035 interviews in North Caucasus Federal District.

b) Results of retest conducted with respondents, who expressed intention to start their own business in 2012 (N = 164), and with control group, which was represented by respondents that expressed no intention to start their own business in 2012 (N = 345).

Results of Research

1) Instrument for measuring values ​​(PVQ-R), which relies on S.H. Schwartz’ refined theory of 19 basic individual values, was adapted and validated in present study. Further research showed that each value ​​correlated positively with the list of behaviors that were selected a priori as supposably expressing it. This let us confirm external validity of the refined theory and instruments developed for its measurement.

2) Level of creativity and attitude to innovations was studied on the population of two federal districts, Central and North Caucasus. Results of this study revealed specifics of creative behavior in different domains (spheres), as well as existence of generalized factor, which characterize individual creativity. Creativity in sphere of visual arts and literature contribute the most into this factor. The impact of values on creative behavior in different domains and on attitudes toward innovation was identified. We evaluated both direct and indirect effect of values ​​and socio-demographic characteristics, gender and education, on creative behavior in different spheres.

3) It was shown that individual social capital (number of friends and relatives willing to provide support in different spheres of life, and inclusion in organizational activities) plays a role of catalyst on the intention to start own business. This factor makes an implementation of this intention more successful in Russian context. In our study, respondents who started their own business a year after survey had a higher individual social capital than those who did not. This factor not only provides objective support, but often plays a psychological role – it gives an individual sense of confidence and control over his/her life, which increases entrepreneurial activity. Individual involvement in activities of various clubs and other organizations has the strongest effect on implementation of entrepreneurial intentions.

4) Respondents who were not able to realize their intention to start their own business, noted as main obstacles following: bureaucratization of process, financial problems, excessive taxation, corruption of officials and lack of state support, high rent or difficulties with finding place. Problems directly connected with the activities of entrepreneur were also mentioned: lack of necessary knowledge, inability to find your own niche, problems with contractors and qualified personnel, lack of time to maintain business.

Field of application. Results of our research may be useful in developing programs to support small businesses in Russian regions, as well as in preparing state programs aimed at modernizing Russian economy. They also can be used in developing training programs to enhance personal creativity or entrepreneurial traits of individual. New instrument for measuring values, that was validated and tested by staff of our laboratory on representative sample, highly demanded and used by researchers in many countries at the present time. Instruments developed by laboratory researchers (measurement for study values, creative behavior, entrepreneurial behavior) can be used for testing and selecting certain categories of people (for example, in business schools or positions that require personal creativity). Research results can be used for teaching in such courses as social psychology, cross-cultural psychology, economic psychology, as well as for specialized research seminars in master program «Applied Social Psychology" and other master programs of HSE. Since we used in our study instruments well known in foreign psychology, results of this study can be used (and are used) for teaching courses in English.

Publications:


Tatarko A., Schmidt P. Individual Social Capital and Implementation of Entrepreneurial Intentions: The case of Russia // Journal of Business Venturing. 2013
Татарко А. Н. Социальный капитал как фактор отношения к деньгам // В кн.: XIII Международная научная конференция по проблемам развития экономики и общества. В 4 кн. Кн. 2. / Отв. ред.: Е. Г. Ясин. Кн. 2. М. : Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ, 2012. С. 614-622.
Татарко А. Н. Социальный капитал как фактор отношения к деньгам С. 604-611.
Татарко А. Н. Социальный капитал как фактор отношения к деньгам С. 614-622.
Tatiana Butenko, Schwartz S. Relations of the new circle of 19 values to behaviors / Издательский дом НИУ ВШЭ. Series WP BRP "PSYCHOLOGY". 2013. No. 08.
Schmidt P., de Leeuw A., Valois P., Morin A. J. Gender Differences in Intentions to Buy Fair-Trade Products: Extending the Theory of Planned Behaviour to include Moral Norms // Journal of Environmental Research. 2013
Schmidt P., Porzsolt F., Bausch J., Geipel G., Huppertz E., Mühlbacher A., Otto T., Radic D., Ravens-Sieberer U., Zimmermann T., Clouth J. Die angemessene Evidenz für Therapieentscheidungen: eine Diskussion des Methodenpluralismus in klinischen Studien // Gesundheitsokonomie und Qualitatsmanagement. 2013. Vol. 18. No. 1. P. 31-39.
Schwartz S. National culture as value orientations: Consequences of value differences and cultural distance, in: Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture Vol. 2. North-Holland, 2013.
Schwartz S. National culture as value orientations: Consequences of value differences and cultural distance. In V. Ginsburgh & D. Throsby (Eds.) // Handbook of the Economics of Art and Culture. 2014
Glaum M., Schmidt P., Schnϋrer K. Determinants of Cash Flow Forecasting Quality // Management Science. 2013
Davidov E., Meuleman B., Cieciuch J., Billiet J., Schmidt P. Measurement Equivalence in Cross-National Research // Annual Review of Sociology. 2013 doi
Tatarko A., Schmidt P. Relation between social capital and monetary attitudes, in: Trust in soсiety, business and organization: Proceedings of the Conference “Business. Society. Human". M. : Cogito-Centre–IPRAS Publishing House, 2013. P. 163-179.
Лебедева Н. М., Григорян Л. К. Опосредующая роль имплицитных теорий инновативности во влиянии ценностей на отношение к инновациям в разных типах культур // Психологический журнал. 2013
Татарко А. Н., Амерханова Н. А., Богатов Н. Ю. Социально-психологический капитал как фактор предпринимательского поведения // В кн.: Доверие и недоверие в условиях развития гражданского общества / Отв. ред.: А. Б. Купрейченко, И. В. Мерсиянова. М. : НИУ ВШЭ, 2013. Гл. 15. С. 278-298.
Thӧrner S., Schmidt P., Gosen S. Terrorist Threat, Prejudice and Anti-Muslim Backlash: A Cross-Country Poll Review for a Decade of Terror // Political Psychology. 2013
Cieciuch J., Schwartz S., Vecchione M. Applying the refined values theory to past data: What can researchers gain? // Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 2013. No. 44. P. 1213-1232. doi
Schwartz S. Societal value culture: Latent and dynamic // Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 2013
Datler G., Jagodzinski W., Schmidt P. Two Theories on the best Bench: Internal and External Validity of the Theories of Ronald Inglehart and Shalom Schwartz // Social Science Research. 2013. No. 42. P. 906-925.
Davidov E., Meuleman B., Schwartz S., Schmidt P. Individual Values, Cultural embeddedness, and anti-Immigration Sentiments: Explaining Differences in the Effect of Values on Attitudes toward Immigration Across Europe // Kӧlner Zeitschrift fϋr Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie. 2013
Mϋller T., De Graaf N. D., Schmidt P. Which Societies provide a strong Religious Socialisation Context? Explanations beyond the Effects of National Religiosity // Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 2013
Schwartz S. Negativity bias and basic values // Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 2013. Vol. 3. No. 37 doi
de Leeuw A., Valois P., Morin A. J., Schmidt P. Gender Differences in Intentions to Buy FairTrade Products: Extending the Theory of Planned Behaviour to include Moral Norms // Journal of Business Ethics. 2013
Bardi A., Jaspal R., Polek E., Schwartz S. Values and IPT: Theoretical integration and empirical interactions, in: Identity Process Theory: Identity, Social Action and Social Change. , 2013.
Lebedeva N., Osipova E., Cherkasova L. L. Values and social capital as predictors of attitudes towards innovation / Университет Барселоны. Series WP5 "SEARCH Working Paper". 2013. No. WP5/09.
Lebedeva N., Grigoryan L. Implicit theories of innovativeness: a cross-cultural analysis / NRU Higher School of Economics. Series SOC "Sociology". 2013. No. 16.
Schmidt P. Values and Innovative Behavior in Organisations: Results from a Russian Representative Survey // Journal of Organizational Behavior. 2013
Лебедева Н. М., Бушина Е. В., Черкасова Л. Л. Ценности,социальный капитал и отношение к инновациям // Общественные науки и современность. 2013. № 4. С. 28-42.
Schmidt P., Tatarko A., Amerkhanova N. A. Entrepreneurial intention, values, and the reasoned action approach: results from a Russian population survey / National Research University Higher School of Economics. Series WP BRP "Basic research program". 2013. No. 12.
Tatarko A. Is individual social capital linked to the implementation of entrepreneurial intentions? / National Research University Higher School of Economics. Series WP BRP "Basic research program". 2013. No. 25.
Vecchione M., Kaprara G., Dentale F., Schwartz S. Voting and values: Reciprocal effects over time // Political Psychology. 2013. Vol. 34. No. 4. P. 465-485. doi