Goal of Research: building models of the impact of individual values and social capital on creative and entrepreneurial behavior in different regions of Russia, and explaining such influences.
Empirical base of Research consisted of the results of two conducted studies:
a) Results of representative socio-psychological survey conducted in Central and North Caucasus federal districts of Russia in 2012. The effective sample size was 2061 interviews with respondents aged from 18 to 60 years: 1026 completed interviews in Central Federal District, and 1035 interviews in North Caucasus Federal District.
b) Results of retest conducted with respondents, who expressed intention to start their own business in 2012 (N = 164), and with control group, which was represented by respondents that expressed no intention to start their own business in 2012 (N = 345).
Results of Research
1) Instrument for measuring values (PVQ-R), which relies on S.H. Schwartz’ refined theory of 19 basic individual values, was adapted and validated in present study. Further research showed that each value correlated positively with the list of behaviors that were selected a priori as supposably expressing it. This let us confirm external validity of the refined theory and instruments developed for its measurement.
2) Level of creativity and attitude to innovations was studied on the population of two federal districts, Central and North Caucasus. Results of this study revealed specifics of creative behavior in different domains (spheres), as well as existence of generalized factor, which characterize individual creativity. Creativity in sphere of visual arts and literature contribute the most into this factor. The impact of values on creative behavior in different domains and on attitudes toward innovation was identified. We evaluated both direct and indirect effect of values and socio-demographic characteristics, gender and education, on creative behavior in different spheres.
3) It was shown that individual social capital (number of friends and relatives willing to provide support in different spheres of life, and inclusion in organizational activities) plays a role of catalyst on the intention to start own business. This factor makes an implementation of this intention more successful in Russian context. In our study, respondents who started their own business a year after survey had a higher individual social capital than those who did not. This factor not only provides objective support, but often plays a psychological role – it gives an individual sense of confidence and control over his/her life, which increases entrepreneurial activity. Individual involvement in activities of various clubs and other organizations has the strongest effect on implementation of entrepreneurial intentions.
4) Respondents who were not able to realize their intention to start their own business, noted as main obstacles following: bureaucratization of process, financial problems, excessive taxation, corruption of officials and lack of state support, high rent or difficulties with finding place. Problems directly connected with the activities of entrepreneur were also mentioned: lack of necessary knowledge, inability to find your own niche, problems with contractors and qualified personnel, lack of time to maintain business.
Field of application. Results of our research may be useful in developing programs to support small businesses in Russian regions, as well as in preparing state programs aimed at modernizing Russian economy. They also can be used in developing training programs to enhance personal creativity or entrepreneurial traits of individual. New instrument for measuring values, that was validated and tested by staff of our laboratory on representative sample, highly demanded and used by researchers in many countries at the present time. Instruments developed by laboratory researchers (measurement for study values, creative behavior, entrepreneurial behavior) can be used for testing and selecting certain categories of people (for example, in business schools or positions that require personal creativity). Research results can be used for teaching in such courses as social psychology, cross-cultural psychology, economic psychology, as well as for specialized research seminars in master program «Applied Social Psychology" and other master programs of HSE. Since we used in our study instruments well known in foreign psychology, results of this study can be used (and are used) for teaching courses in English.