Goal of Research
The goal of the research is to assess the current state of civil society in order to facilitate development and implementation of the government policy for supporting and developing civil society institutions, nonprofit nongovernmental organizations in particular; and provide the interested parties with relevant, complete, accurate, and regularly updated information that is needed to analyse and forecast ways of development of the civil society in Russia.
a. Systemic identification of the object of the monitoring in the context of institutional and socio-structural projections of civil society.
b. Building a database of indicators of the current state of the Russia's civil society.
c. Preparation of analytical references using mathematical methods of data analysis, in particular, cluster analysis (modified two-step, data mining, and hierarchical), dispersion analysis, regression analysis, methods of searching for links between nominal variables using projection matrices, method of threshold aggregation as a linear convolution for building indexes, and others.
d. Collection of information needed to analyze the situation, describe the forecast background, and precisely forecast and model scenarios for the development of a civil society.
Empirical Base of Research
Goals set in the research were achieved by application of sociological methods of research (surveys, secondary data analysis, in-depth interviews). Both qualitative and quantitative sociological methods were used to collect data. The representative survey of the Russian population aged 18 years and older (sample of 2,000 people) was conducted. The research was based on the methodology that was developed and has been effectively implemented by the Centre for Studies of Civil Society and the Nonprofit Sector NRU HSE for studying of different aspects of the state of the civil society in Russia over a period of eight rounds of monitoring (2006-2013).
The sample design was a multistage stratified by territorial attribution and randomized sample that is representative of the Russian population by gender, age and community type in 43 regions of the Russian Federation. Each interview was performed with a formalized questionnaire that was sufficient to accomplish the research goal and objectives.
Mathematical methods were employed to analyze the collected empirical data, particularly, cluster analysis (modified two-staged, intellectual, hierarchical), variance analysis, regression analysis for assessing linear relationships between variables, methods of searching for links between nominal variables using projection matrices, method of threshold aggregation as a linear convolution for building indexes.
Results of Research
a) In theory
- A theoretical concept was developed to identify determinants of aptitude to civic engagement among the Russian population and explain differences in civic engagement of different social groups. In particular, differences in civic engagement of various social and professional groups were identified. The empirical research conducted in 2013 revealed the most significant social, economic and psychological determinants of aptitude to civic engagement among the Russian population. These results in conjunction with scientific literature review on the topic allowed developing of a theoretical concept of determination of aptitude to civic engagement among the Russian population.
b) In methodology
- The methodology of performing of the monitoring research was improved in certain aspects, in particular were specified theory and methods of research of the selected target group, i.e. persons predisposed to volunteering.
c) Acquiring of new empirical knowledge
- On the basis of the analysis of data received from the monitoring of the state of civil society to the data base the following was added: estimated indicators and generalized indicators of the populations’ civic participation; involvement in charities, volunteering, awareness of activities of nonprofit associations, and other nongovernmental organizations, civil society initiatives.
- Following the monitoring program logics the computational data of 2013 within the selected segments was integrated in order to provide the systematic discussion of the current state of civil society. Also, the range of dynamic indicators was extended in order to provide more accurate systematic evaluation of the current state and development trends of the civil society in Russia as well provide for international comparative research.
- According to the research objectives in-depth analysis of the empirical data on the social-psychological determinants of the Russian society’s aptitude for civic engagement, and societal attitudes influencing their civic participation.
- In the research process we also formed the data base of indicators (approximately 130), which allow for dynamic observation analysis of the state of civil society.
Degree of Implementation
Data and recommendationsbased on the results of this study were incorporated in policy papers presented to relevant policy making bodies in the Russian government; used for updating teaching and study materials for professional training of nongovernmental organizations’ employees, local and regional government employees, and faculty involved in realization of the Program of Support for “Socially-oriented” Nongovernmental Nonprofit Organizations by the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation; used for Monitoring of the actions realized within the Regional programs of support of socially oriented NGOs conducted in 2013 under the auspices of the Ministry of Economic Development. Analytics were presented to the Civic Chamber of the Russian Federation to be used in the report “The state of civil society in the Russian Federation in 2013”.
Field of Application
· at all levels of public administration in Russia, for development of policies and programs to support philanthropy, volunteering and civic engagement in Russia
· at all levels of government to design assessment programs of governmentally sponsored projects and programs of support for “socially oriented” NGOs;
· in practices of civil society organizations and public expert councils for analytical reports and decision making process to strengthen the Russian third sector and promote sustainability of nonprofit organizations;
· in practices of international nongovernmental organizations and think tanks for analytical reports on the state of civil society in the Russian Federation in comparison with other countries;
· in education and professional development programs for public servants;
· in the curricula and syllabi of various professional education institutions.