The purpose of this paper is to explore the composition of skillsets in biotechnology from the perspective of employers and its relation to open innovation processes in the sector. It provides conclusions for HR management practice.
The study is based on job advertisements content analysis and in-depth interviews with chiefs of research and development companies. It uses biotechnology as an example of industry where open innovation practice implementation is expanding. The authors have used data from American, British and Russian job search engines.
It is demonstrated that skills composition required in biotechnology does not vary significantly among selected countries as the market becomes increasingly globalized in terms of not only technology used but also personnel hired. Companies stress more on hard and digital skills, while soft skills appear to be a “must have without saying,” The mismatch between skills presented in the advertisements and articulated in the interviews has been found as employers tend to demonstrate innovation friendly company culture for possible applicants.
The present paper enriches literature on employee skills for open innovation. It gives comprehensive lists of biotech skills in-demand divided into hard, digital and soft categories and interprets them within the context of employee cognition and behavior. The new insight into employee skills articulated by the companies as a strong element of organizational culture is presented.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the changes in higher education under the new configuration of resources based on the income structure of universities located in the Central Federal District (CFD). Particular focus is given to the changes in the structure of public financing of higher education, considering the explicit priorities of increasing teaching staff salaries and promoting research. The study also assesses regional differentiation in financial resources for the maintenance of university property and the accumulation of funds from extra-budgetary sources.
Design/methodology/approach – Using statistical and economic analysis methods, the research reveals the main trends of structural changes in public funding of higher education in Russia as a whole, and the regional peculiarities of financial support in the universities of the CFD.
Findings – The results of this investigation of universities in the CFD point to inertia in the development of universities in the regions, and problems transitioning to new business models. Groups of universities in the region often lobby for the “previous rules of the game.” The results evidence a change in financial support from different income sources and in cost structures at the university level. These are the result of higher education reform and university support programs aimed at enhancing the academic and research capacity of the leading Russian universities and developing a competitive national education system.
Originality/value – A costs optimization policy has led to polarization of universities and reduced development opportunities for a significant proportion of regional universities. In order to maintain their properties in good condition, they have to make active efforts to seek non-budgetary funding sources against a fall in effective demand from the population.
The paper considers the transformation of the public funding mechanisms of theatres during the period from the last years of the USSR and early years of postSoviet Russia up to the present. It analyses the differences between models applied at different times. Several parameters of these models are taken into consideration, including the requirements that public bodies impose on the activities of theatres due to funding, and special features of budgetary tools which among other things characterize the approach to the determination of amounts of funding transferred to the theatres. Four models of public funding are juxtaposed with the state cultural policy objectives in theatrical activity set by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal statutory and regulatory enactments. Th e hypothesis that there is no direct orientation towards such objectives is put forward and fi nds its confi rmation. A new model based on the public grants mechanism that meets the requirement of being policy objective-oriented is proposed.
Objective: to identify the causes and consequences of the increasing stratification of higher educational institutions by the volumes and sources of financing, as well as by the areas of training. Methods: during the research we used methods of statistical and economic analysis of the results of the universities’ activities. Using econometric models, the relationships were estimated of the resource base of higher education, industrial and economic potential of Russian regions; an empirical analysis of factors influencing the increasing public demand for higher education was conducted. Results: the trends of structural changes in the demand for higher education in Russia during the period from 2001 to 2014 were described, the regional differentiation of financial provision of higher educational institutions in the transition to effective contract work was evaluated. The major risks were identified, associated with: the structural mismatch of the demand for higher education from families and the offer of admission quotas for the budget-funded education; with increasing regional differentiation, which provokes the separation of the Russian universities by the volumes and sources of financial provision; with high commitments to increase the salaries of the teaching staff leading to a shortage of funds for maintenance of the property complex and ensuring of the educational process, which jeopardizes the quality of educational programs’ implementation. Scientific novelty: basing on the empirical analysis using econometric models, the tendencies are identified of structural changes in the demand for higher education in the Russian regions; the impact is assessed of the economic crisis and the payable demand of families on the financial provision of universities; risks are identified and justified in the differentiation of Russian universities’ financing. Practical significance: the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used by experts in the field of Economics and Management in designing financial provision and development strategies of higher educational organizations.
In connection with the increased attention of the State to the involvement of NPOs into providing services in social sectors, the Federal and regional legislation regulating the orders (procedures) for selecting social service providers is analyzed. The authors verify the hypothesis that these orders, which now are approved within all branches of the social sphere, have serious deficiencies that adversely affect the transparency of the above-mentioned procedures. Regional legislation is considered in relation to 15 specially selected subjects of the Russian Federation.
There are three types of selection procedures for social service providers: 1) competitive selection, 2) non-alternative choice of service provider by the customer, 3) the choice of the service provider by the consumer, including through the use of certificates. These orders are analyzed through the following components: the categories of suppliers from which selection is made; "input" requirements, that is, the requirements that the organization must satisfy in order to be admitted for selection; requirements for the customer (state or municipal authority) to submit information on the selection and selection results; selection criteria (for the competition); requirements for the procedure for reviewing and evaluating the proposals of participants (for the competition). The study confirmed the proposed hypothesis, and the flaws that adversely affect the transparency of the selection procedures exist for each of the indicated components.
The paper discloses a new approach to emerging technologies identi- fication, which strongly relies on capacity of big data analysis, namely text min- ing augmented by syntactic analysis techniques. The opportunities of the new big-data-augmented methodology are shown in comparison to existing results, both globally and in Russia. The integrated ontology of currently emerging tech- nologies in A&F sector is introduced. The directions and possible criteria of fur- ther enhancement and refinement of proposed methodology are contemplated.
The article presents the study results of data on budgetary financing of socio-cultural sphere for the period from 2000 to 2015, from the funds of the consolidated budget of the Russian Federation and the Federal budget as related to the field as a whole and its individual sectors. In order to test the hypothesis that Russian State’s priority is the development of the mentioned above sphere in the dynamics the article analyzes the indicators of public funding volumes, as well as the shares allocated to this sector from the budget funds in the total budget expenditures. Indicators of the socio-cultural sphere budgetary financing during indicated period are compared with similar indicators of the countries belonging to the Organization for economic cooperation and development. The article examines indicators of budgetary funds allocated for functioning and development of the sphere. Conclusions are made about a partial confirmation of the mentioned hypothesis. Under the conditions of hard budget restrictions the urgency of the task to increase an efficiency of budgetary expenses is being emphasized. The article analyzes the implementation of reforms that play a key role in completing this task.
The paper analyzes the trend in the development of the creative economy in Russia and estimates the export potential of the Russian creative industries. The author demonstrates that modern concepts of cultural heritage preservation focus on increasing the efficiency of its use and that building creative potential and systematic support of the creative industries is becoming a key task of the strategic development of regions and municipalities in the post-industrial era.
Subject. Key tasks for nonprofit organizations are abilities to provide social services and to compete with governmental organizations for budgetary grants. Such abilities might improve effectiveness of governmental socio-cultural programs, and barriers lifting for budgetary grants for nonprofit organizations look very actual. Purpose. The article reflects the research results of the grants value, provided from consolidated public budget over 2015-16. Methodology. One of the article hypothesis is the stability of the grants, which is conformed by the analysis of the grants total value and structure by regions. Also the article analysis includes the comparison of the grants for nonprofit organizations and governmental units in socio-cultural programs over 2015-16. Result. The research results confirm the hypothesis of the stability of the grants value for nonprofit organizations, but not those increase according to governmental policy declarations, probably as the result of the grants cuts by half of the regional authorities. Conclusions. The article also pointed key reasons of the searched results, such as legislation of the nonprofit organizations granting, general mistrust towards nonprofit organizations by authorities and citizens. Elimination of the reasons relies mainly on the legislative improvements.
Involving non-profit organizations (NPOs) in providing state and municipal services in the social sphere (including education, healthcare, culture and social policy, physical culture and sport, mass media) has been a priority of Russia’s social policy for the past several years. However, there has been no significant progress achieved in dealing with this issue, as evidenced by the fact that the need for such involvement has been repeatedly underlined in the speech of the President of Russian Federation addressed to the Federal Assembly (2013-2015). According to statistics, the volume of subsidiaries allocated to private organizations in the social sphere amounted to only 40 billion rubles in 2015 or 1.6% of the total funds allocated to this area in the federal budget. In comparison with 2013, it decreased by almost 15%. The article presents the results of a research of socioeconomic mechanisms of involving NPOs in providing services in the social sphere. This article considers more specifically the level of real functioning of these mechanisms in the subjects of Russian Federation, through analyzing the indicators of amount and structure of the budget allocations to NPOs. These mechanisms are analyzed on the federal and regional levels through the scope of: a) the rights (and the duties) of the state (municipal) authorities to involve NPOs in providing social services at the expenses of budget funds; b) the procedures of service providers selection; c) the method (tool) of NPOs budgeting. The article specifies deficiencies of these mechanisms that determine obstacles to a wider involvement of NPOs in providing social services. One of these obstacles is the low "status" of the services provided by NPOs. Today, they are often not formally related to the state (municipal) services ensuring the realization of social guarantees.
Involving non-profit organizations (NPOs) in providing state and municipal services in the social sphere (including education, healthcare, culture and social policy, physical culture and sport, mass media) has been a priority of Russia’s social policy for the past several years. However, there has been no significant progress achieved in dealing with this issue, as evidenced by the fact that the need for such involvement has been repeatedly underlined in the speech of the President of Russian Federation addressed to the Federal Assembly (2013-2015). According to statistics, the volume of subsidiaries allocated to private organizations in the social sphere amounted to only 40 billion rubles in 2015 or 1.6% of the total funds allocated to this area in the federal budget. In comparison with 2013, it decreased by almost 15%.
The article presents the results of a research of socioeconomic mechanisms of involving NPOs in providing services in the social sphere. This article considers more specifically the level of real functioning of these mechanisms in the subjects of Russian Federation, through analyzing the indicators of amount and structure of the budget allocations to NPOs. These mechanisms are analyzed on the federal and regional levels through the scope of: a) the rights (and the duties) of the state (municipal) authorities to involve NPOs in providing social services at the expenses of budget funds; b) the procedures of service providers selection; c) the method (tool) of NPOs budgeting.
The article specifies deficiencies of these mechanisms that determine obstacles to a wider involvement of NPOs in providing social services. One of these obstacles is the low "status" of the services provided by NPOs. Today, they are often not formally related to the state (municipal) services ensuring the realization of social guarantees.
The purpose of this article is to analyze financing of educational institutions based on per capita standards and to identify various approaches to determination of standard costs for public (municipal) services provision. Based on the legislative and normative frameworks of the Russian Federation subjects, as of May 2017, the authors identified three main approaches at the regional level to determination of the standard costs structure, depending on the distribution of the costs’ elements for general economic needs. The results of the research showed that, despite another Russia’s demand to oblige regions to apply per capita standards for determination of the subsidy amount for public (municipal) assignment fulfillment, it was not accomplished in all constituent entities of the country. In some cases, relative statutory and regulatory enactments imply the use of per capita standards and standard costs, but in reality, the calculations for financing receiving are based on actual expenditures.