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Regular version of the site

HSE Website Style Guide

Inspired by, but not copied from the Guardian Style Guide

See also the Thesaurus.


Omit periods for: etc, eg, and ie

Omit periods for academic degrees, such as PhD, MSc, etc

British or American English

We try to use British English where possible.

Programme, not program. Exception: computer program

Centre, not center

Honour, not honor

In verbs we use –ize, not –ise:

organize, realize, recognize,capitalize

See also:




We capitalize:

  • Titles and positions (HSE Academic Supervisor, Russian Prime Minister)
  • Academic departments (Department of Economics, Laboratory for Research in Inflation and Growth)
  • Academic degrees (Master’s Degree in Finance, Master’s of Fine Arts)
  • Official names of individual courses of study (Introduction to Finance)
  • Official names of organizations (the Green Party, World Health Organization)
  • Official names of conferences and forums (The International Conference on Emerging Markets; Moscow International Financial Forum 2013)
  • Names of awards or prizes (Nobel Peace Prize)
  • Titles of individual lectures (The Department of Economics recently hosted the lecture ‘The Russian Economy and World Markets’.) Note: Names of lectures are also often enclosed in quotation marks.
  • Titles of publications including books, periodicals, articles, chapter names, section headings

Note: Names of freestanding publications (books, pamphlets, periodicals, newspapers, and sections of newspapers) that are published separately, as well as films and TV programmes, are usually also italicized:

  • We read the Financial Times every day in our economics class.
  • My favorite novel is War and Peace.
  • For my research project, I used the Journal of Economic Theory.
  • The BBC’s Panorama has been on air for many years.

The film Hipsters was a smash hit in Russia when it appeared in 2008.

Note: With periodicals, if the periodical’s name begins with ‘The’, only capitalize the ‘T’ when it appears at the beginning of a sentence: ‘The Financial Times is the only newspaper I read’. ‘I only read the Financial Times’.

Note:  Do not capitalize articles (a, an, the) and prepositions in titles, unless they appear in initial position or after a colon.

  • An Excellent Opportunity to Study, Work and Live
  • A Strong Side of Public Policy Is Debate
  • Foresight Is More Prescience Than Prognosis
  • Foreign Policy Challenges in Iran: An In-depth Study

Note:  Using quotation marks in titles, a common phenomenon in Russian, should be avoided: the journal Sexuality&Culture, not the journal “Sexuality&Culture

Do not capitalize:

  • Names of disciplines unless they form part of a department name, an official course name, or are themselves proper nouns (‘HSE has introduced a new economics course’.)
  • Seasons: winter, spring, etc.


Oxford comma rule

a comma before the final ‘and’ in lists: straightforward ones (he ate ham, eggs and chips) do not need one, but sometimes it can help the reader (he ate cereal, kippers, bacon, eggs, toast and marmalade, and tea), and sometimes it is essential:

I dedicate this book to my parents, Martin Amis, and JK Rowling
I dedicate this book to my parents, Martin Amis and JK Rowling


We use ‘data’ as a singular noun (not datum)

Dates and times

Always put the year the first time a date is mentioned, so that in the future, when people are looking back through the archive, it's clear when we are referring to.

Date style:

March 15, 2013. In cases where the year is omitted: March 15

Time: 12-hour clock (8:30 am; 1 pm; 6:15 pm)

HSE departments

Names of HSE and its departments are translated as follows:

Высшая Школа Экономики – Higher School of Economics


НИУ ВШЭ – HSE, or National Research University Higher School of Economics (not NRU HSE)

Вышка – HSE

In texts and phrases, ‘the Higher School of Economics’, but HSE, not the HSE.

Факультет – Faculty (Faculty of Law)

Отделение – School (School of Integrated Communications)

Департамент – School

Кафедра – Department на всех кампусах. Chair - это только заведующий кафедрой, не сама оргединица (см Merriam - Webster dictionary)!


Если Департамент входит в состав Факультета наряду со Школами (Москва), то департамент переводится как School. 
(трехуровневая структура "факультет — департамент/школа — кафедра": faculty — school — department)

В отдельных случаях возможен перевод Департамента как department (В рамках факультета, по запросу).

Сочетание 'academic department' не используется в названиях департаментов. если не подходит слово department, то лучше выбирать school.

Если Департамент входит в состав Школы (Санкт Петербург), то это Department. 
(двухуровневая стуктура "школа — департамент / кафедра ": school — department)

Лаборатория – Laboratory (not Lab)

For more information, see the thesaurus.

For translation of specific HSE faculties, see the list of faculties.

For translation of specific HSE research centers and laboratories, see the research section.

When a department is part of a larger unit:

HSE Faculty of Politics School of Integrated Communications


School of Integrated Communications at the Faculty of Politics

HSE programmes

Common translations:

Бакалавриат – undergraduate programme

Магистратура – master’s programme

Аспирантура – doctoral programme

For more information, see the thesaurus.


Do not use hyphens after adverbs ending in –ly (internationally recognized).


We use words like webpage, website, internet, and email (not capitalized and without hyphens or spaces).


Each paragraph in an interview starts with an EM DASH (insert it as a special symbol) and a SPACE. Questions are in bold.

— Question?

— Answer. Answer. Answer. Answer. Answer. Answer. Answer. Answer. Answer. Answer. Answer. Answer. Answer. Answer. Answer. Answer.

— Question?

— Answer.

When we translate an interview from Russian which starts with a traditional form of address, such as Алексей Иванович, or Мария Петровна, we replace it with Dr. Chernenko, Mr. Putin, or Ms. Medvedeva.

— Элла Львовна, где вы работали до ВШЭ? И почему пришли работать в Вышку?

— Dr. Khabina, where did you work before HSE? And why did you come to work at HSE?


We add links to HSE departments, staff members, events and projects where possible, but only once in a text:

Anita Soboleva, Associate Professor at the HSE Faculty of Law Department of the Theory of Law and Comparative Law, has been voted one of HSE’s best teachers by students in 2012. Anita Soboleva [second reference, no link] is a lawyer with 10 years’ experience and the leader of a human rights organization, Lawyers for Constitutional Rights and Freedoms.

We try to add links to words and phrases in the text, not just print them ‘as is’:

Source:Harvard Business Review – Russia, February 2013,

not Source :http://hbr-russia.ru/issue/85/3333/

Avoid adding links to blank spaces and punctuation marks, unless they are part of the phrase you are using as a link:

HSE/NES research seminar on political economy. Topic: ‘Does Political Competition Matter for Public Goods Provision? Evidence from Russian Regions

1st International 'Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey' User Conference. Moscow, May 17-18, 2013. Deadline for paper submission: March 25


Each article for the News section should include a title (see Titles) and a summary of 1-2 sentences.


Spell out numbers 1-9; always spell out a number if it appears at the beginning of a sentence. (She wrote 23 books. Twenty-three books are sitting on the shelf.)

Large numbers of 4 figures and higher: use comma every third place: 100,000 (not 100000)

For percentages:  use the % symbol in headlines and copy (The city lost 20% of its inhabitants to the disaster.)

Quotation marks

Use single quotes at the start and end of a quoted section, with double quotes for quoted words within that section.

‘The More You Give, the More You Get’

HSE Law Faculty team: ‘We are going to Washington for the “Jessup”’.

Reference lists

APA Style Guide:

Formatting Citations in the Reference List:


General notes about books: If name(s) are the first part of the citation, they are capitalized and listed— last name, then initials. Separate names with a comma, and use an ampersand (&) before the last author. Use Ed. for one editor, Eds. for multiple editors. Capitalize the first word in titles and subtitles, and proper names. Place of publication should include the city name and two letter state abbreviation. See APA manual (6th ed.), p. 187. If you are citing a book chapter or section you must indicate the pages. Use p. for a single page and pp. for multiple pages. Put a space after the p. and put a - (dash) between the numbers with no space before or after the hyphen.

- Ex: Book by a single author.

Author's name. (Year). Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher.

Chitty, D. (2003). Do lemmings commit suicide? Beautiful hypotheses and ugly facts. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

- Ex: Book by two or more authors.

Author's names. (Year). Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher.

Rosellini, G., & Worden, M. (2004). Of course you're angry: A guide to dealing with the emotions of substance abuse (Rev. ed.). Center City, MN: Hazelden.

Periodicals – Journal, Magazine, and Newsletter Articles

General notes about periodical articles and documents: Names are listed last name, then initials, if name(s) is the first element of the citation. Separate names with a comma, and an ampersand (&) before the last author. If there is no author, then the title of the article is first.

Dates– Daily newspapers & newsletters: Use (Year, Month Day). Monthly newspapers & magazines with no volume number: Use (Year, Month). Journals: Use (Year)

Titles– Article titles: capitalize first word in titles and subtitles, and any proper names.

Journal titles– Capitalize all words except articles and prepositions

Volume numbers and issue numbers – Do not use vol. for volume or no. for issue number. The volume number is italicized while the issue number is not. The issue number is enclosed in parentheses and follows immediately after the volume number with no space. Follow the parentheses with a comma.

Pages – Newspapers: use p. for one page, pp. for two or more pages. However, for magazines and journals, Do not use p. or pp. before page numbers. Follow the page number(s) with a period.

Article in a journal or magazine.

Author's name. (Year). Title of article. Title of journal or journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

- Ex: Journal article with DOI assigned.

Include the DOI or Digital Object Identifier if available. When you do not have a DOI assigned and the reference is retrieved online, give the URL of the exact URL if available. If not, use the journal home page. No retrieval date is included. If the journal article was not retrieved online, end the citation with the period after the page numbers.

Gerry, R.. (2000). Tempo training for freestyle. Journal of Swimming Technique, 34(1), 40-42. doi:10.1022/0202-9822.77.4.444

- Ex: Journal article with no DOI, retrieved from open-access URL, more than seven authors. If there is no DOI number, then include the URL for open-access journals when available. When there are more than seven authors, use the ellipses for the authors after the sixth and before the last author.

Jones, H. M., McKay, J., Alvarado, F., Plath, E., Jordan, A., Porter, M., . . . Allsop, S. (2005). The attractions of stupidity. The St. Croix e-Review, 30(2), 6-10. Retrieved from http://st_croix_e-review.com/index.php/articles/view/30/6/

Titles (Job titles, academic positions)

We capitalize job titles and academic positions.

Доцент – Associate Professor (иногда Assistant Professor, в зависимости от условий трудового контракта)

Научный руководитель (ВШЭ в целом, научных работ и подразделений) – Academic Supervisor

Научный руководитель / Академический директор аспирантской школы (образовательных программ/их офисов) – Academic Director

For translation of staff positions, see the thesaurus.

Titles (Academic departments, publications, lectures, degrees, awards and prizes)

See Capitalization section.

Transliteration of Russian names

Simplified British Standard:

Valery, Dmitry, and Andrey

(Not Valeriy, Dmitriy, Andrei)

It is recommended to check the person’s page for correct spelling of the name