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SPIN-RSCI: 3710-8440
ORCID: 0000-0003-4689-8234
ResearcherID: O-3069-2013
Google Scholar
I. A. Kuznetsova
L. Gokhberg
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Tatyana V. Ratay

  • Tatyana V. Ratay has been at HSE since 2005.

Education and Degrees

  • 2001

    Candidate of Sciences* (PhD)

  • 2001

    Postgraduate programme
    Moscow State University of Economics, Statistics and Informatics

  • 1996

    Moscow Institute of Economics and Statistics

* Candidate of Sciences
According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, Candidate of Sciences belongs to ISCED level 8 - "doctoral or equivalent", together with PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar. Candidate of Sciences allows its holders to reach the level of the Associate Professor.


R&D Expenditures in Russia and in the World’s Leading Countries

In 2015 Russia’s Internal R&D expenditures amounted to 914,7 billion roubles, with annual growth rate of 0,2% (in constant prices), or to 1,13% of GDP. The new issue in the “Science, Technology and Innovation” series compares internal R&D expenditures in Russia and in the leading countries of the world in 1995–2015.