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State Reform of Waste Management of Production and Consumption in Russian Federation

Student: Andrei Dregulo

Supervisor: Alexander M. Khodachek

Faculty: Saint-Petersburg School of Social Sciences and Area Studies

Educational Programme: Urban Development and Local Administration (Master)

Year of Graduation: 2021

Relevance. Waste management of production and consumption is a problem all over the world. Despite the existing experiences of foreign countries, the current practice of waste disposal in the Russian Federation remains remains to the level of the last 70s centery. The main method is the disposal of waste in landfills, which leads to the lost of the second resources and the appearance of objects of accumulated environmental damage, which is due to multipale other things such as to the lack of clear regulatory clear regulatory of wastes management. Methods and materials. The methodological apparatus of the study is based on the method of expert assessment. Open data of statistical observations of Rosstat of the Russian Federation and Eurostat, territorial planning documents, information on the functional zones of the planned location of waste management infrastructure facilities, and sources of scientifics literatures wich were used. Results and discussion. The analysis of MSW accumulation standards for apartment buildings in 20 regions of the Russian Federation showed that the differences in accumulation standards for each person can count by 2.32 times (from 0.125 m3 in the Kursk region to 0.279 m3 in the Voronezh Region). At the same time, the differences in the cost of services for the export of MSW at close values of the standard for the accumulation of MSW per person may differ by 2 times from 51.55 rubles (the standard for the accumulation of MSW 0.18 m3) in the Altai Territory to 105.68 rubles (the standard for the accumulation of MSW 0.1825 m3) in the Arkhangelsk region. The decision at the level of the Russian Federation to introduce regional environmental operators for the reform of waste management yet used in the daily bases with freinds had a positive effect. This is largely due to the critically low recovery of secondary materials (separate collection). The level of waste recycling in the Russian Federation does not exceed 7 % (according to various estimates, from 7 to 15% of plastic waste).The share the recycled packages and also packaging in the EU reaches 40-7 0% of the total weight. The control and target indicators of the federal integrated program for waste management within the framework of the national project «Ekologiya»; are not being achieved. The capacity of landfills in the regions of the European part of Russia (where more than 2/3 of the population lives) is almost exhausted. Many MSW landfills are objects of accumulated environmental damage (AED). The method of inventory of AED objects, adopted at the state level, is not able to reveal the mechanisms of AED occurrence. Conclusions and suggestions. In order to improve waste management in the Russian Federation, it is necessary to: introduce the state register of organizations-subjects of EPR, ensure transparency in the use of funds from the environmental collection, introduce educational courses on consumer ethics and environmental responsibility in educational institutions, inform citizens about the environmental consequences of irrational waste disposal and the appearance of AED objects. In terms of the implementation of inventory and state environmental expertise of AED objects, it is necessary to revise the methodology for conducting an inventory of AED objects (Order of the Ministry of Natural Resources No. 193 of 25.04.2012 On Approval of «Methodological Recommendations for conducting an inventory of objects of accumulated Environmental damage», including work on identifying geoecological factors of functional degradation of natural and technical waste disposal systems. Proposals are given for the disposal of residual waste fractions (after separate collection or waste, the distribution of the second resources from which by separation is impractical) by heat treatment to obtainthe second raw materials, wich were used in the products of building materials .

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