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Regular version of the site

About the Russia KLEMS Group

The group was formed in July 2019 at the Laboratory for Research in Inflation and Growth of the Expert Institute at HSE University (Moscow). The group performs empirical research on long-term economic growth and productivity. It also researches structural change and cross-sectoral linkages, cross-country comparisons of income and wealth, the micro-foundations of productivity growth, the problems of productivity measurement, and historical statistics.
The major objective of the group is to update and extend the Russia KLEMS database, which has been supported by HSE University since 2007 as a participant of the World KLEMS initiative.


KLEMS is an acronym for the factors of production: capital (K), labor (L), energy (E), materials (M) and services (S).

The KLEMS approach represents the rate of economic growth of the gross output of the whole economy as the sum of inputs of factors of production by sector. The approach is based on the neoclassical model of growth in industries, first proposed by Jorgenson et al., and is harmonized with the system of national accounts (SNA). The construction of such a system of indicators in a single industrial classification based on common principles for different countries makes it possible to analyze the sources of economic growth not at the level of the economy as a whole, but at the level of individual industries, comparing, for example, the sources of growth and productivity of ‘Manufacture of machinery and equipment”, for example, in Russia and in Germany.

Compared to cross-country comparisons at the level of the economy as a whole, the sectoral level provides more detailed and realistic data for analysis, since growth in agriculture, extractive industries, manufacturing and financial services can vary significantly. The economy as a whole can grow not only because of productivity growth within industries, but also because of inter-industry flows. According to recent studies, such a growth-enhancing reallocation, is the hallmark of many successful growing economies.

The development of such a scorecard is being led by research groups and statistical institutes around the world as part of the World KLEMS initiative.

The Russia KLEMS project

Until recently, a key obstacle to researching the Russian economy using cross-country comparisons at the industry level was the lack of data. A detailed system of industry indicators for a relatively long period, harmonized with similar data for other countries, was not available to researchers. The Russia KLEMS project fills this gap.

Development of Russia KLEMS dataset began at the HSE in 2007 in collaboration with colleagues from the World KLEMS initiative and, in particular, the Groningen Growth and Development Centre the University of Groningen. To date, three Russia KLEMS data releases have been published—2013, 2017 and 2019.

The Russia KLEMS data set is globally recognized and the only source of consistent time series for the output and the factors of production of the Russian economy since 1995 in 34 types of activities of OKVED, the Russian classification of economic activities, harmonized with NACE 1. The last release of the data set covers the period from 1995 to 2016. All releases are presented on our website.

In 2019, a separate working group was formed in HSE to further support and develop the Russia KLEMS data set. The group is forming, supporting and developing a system of indicators of output, factors of production and productivity for the Russian economy, suitable for analyzing the sources of long-term economic growth and making cross-country comparisons.

The tasks include:

What do they say about the Russia KLEMS project?

Dale W. Jorgenson

Marcel P. Timmer

Evgeny Yasin 

Ilya Voskoboynikov

Samuel W. Morris University Professor of Economics at Harvard University


I had the good fortune to be present on the occasion of the launching of Russia KLEMS at a workshop held at the Higher School of Economics in Moscow on March 31, 2008. The challenges to completion of the project were formidable. Important progress had been made on convergence of Russian National Accounts to the level of advanced OECD countries. However, substantial gaps remained from the interruptions of collection and processing of basic economic data that accompanied the establishment of the Russian Federation as an independent nation.

The initial version of the Russia KLEMS data set has now been completed and posted on the World KELMS website (http://www.worldklems.net/data.htm). This achievement has been made possible by extended co-operation between economists and statisticians. As a consequence, Russia has joined more than forty countries around the world that are developing industry-level data sets for analyzing growth and productivity in the World KLEMS Initiative. These data sets are rapidly becoming indispensable for the development of longer-term economic strategies. I had the good fortune to be present on the occasion of the launching of Russia KLEMS at a workshop held at the Higher School of Economics in Moscow on March 31, 2008

Professor of Economic Growth and Development at the University of Groningen and Groningen Growth and Development Centre


Having worked with productivity statistics for a wide variety of countries within the World KLEMS project, I was pleasantly surprised by the abundant availability of economic statistics for Russia. Building upon a strong tradition of data collection, the transition towards an international comparable system within the framework of the System of National Accounts and an International industrial classification has been surprisingly fast. From the perspective of building productivity accounts, the information on investments, output and employment was particularly rich. Also the importance of issues such as the size of the shadow economy and informal employment for the Russian economy is well reflected in the available collection of statistics. Based on this, it was possible to construct a first version of the Russian KLEMS dataset, providing for the first time an in-depth analysis of productivity performance of the Russian economy. And through the World KLEMS initiative, new comparisons with performance of a wide variety of other countries can be made.

Academic Supervisor of the HSE Dear friends


Over the last two decades I have been hearing about the problems of Russian statistics. I’m happy that today I have an opportunity to speak about solutions and results. Indicators of output, labour, and capital have been published for over 30 Russian industries for the period since 1995, and their quality is confirmed by such world-renowned experts as Dale Jorgenson and Marcel Timmer. Everyone who has worked with Russian industrial statistics, who has constantly faced the necessity to glean data from various statistical sources and keep thinking about possible changes in methodology and classifications, will value this breakthrough. In addition to that, now there is an opportunity to carry out inter-country comparisons with more than 40 countries participating in the World KLEMS project, on the industry level. As a result, Russia has become more transparent for economics researchers, business analysts and policy-makers both in Russian and global economies. This opens the opportunities for a dialogue with international academics and such international organizations as the World Bank, IMF, and OECD. It is also useful for Russian statisticians, since Russia KLEMS is a pilot project for them, a prototype for implementing modern statistical methods in Russian official statistics.

Director centre for Productivity Studies


The recently published data set is the result of the efforts over many years  of several Russian and international experts. In 2006 the analysis of the Russian economy’s production became part of the research program founded at the HSE in the Laboratory for Research in Inflation and Growth headed by Revold Entov. The first serious effort on implementing Dale Jorgenson’s initiative became possible thanks to support from Andrey Yakovlev and Evgeny Yasin. With their participation, in 2007 the HSE allocated funds for analyzing the opportunity to build a system of industry growth accounts on the basis of Russian statistics. That study was implemented by HSE researchers, Vladimir BessonovAleksey PonomarenkoIgor Kim, Elena Dryabina, and me. The results of the study were discussed at a seminar on March 31, 2008, with leading specialists of the Federal State Statistics Service, Russian experts, as well as representatives of the EU KLEMS consortium and Dale Jorgenson, and became the basis for the Russia KLEMS data set.


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