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Магистратура 2020/2021

Здоровье и болезнь в рыночном обществе

Статус: Курс по выбору (Прикладная социальная психология)
Направление: 37.04.01. Психология
Когда читается: 2-й курс, 1, 2 модуль
Формат изучения: без онлайн-курса
Охват аудитории: для своего кампуса
Прогр. обучения: Прикладная социальная психология
Язык: английский
Кредиты: 4

Course Syllabus


The course seeks to critically evaluate the role of medicine and psychiatry in controlling greater forms of human experiences in contemporary Western society dominated by consumer markets. Health and illness as well as life and death are in the center of all human experience. From sociological point of view, they are not just biological events of intimate and private life. Social distinctions between health and illness refer to the cultural conceptions of normal and pathological. Cultural connotations of diseases often hide politics of behavioral risk factors, communicate interests of resourceful social groups, being used as devices of social control and power struggles. In contemporary society the social processes around health and illness get complicated due to marketization. Market economy has produced market society with control, money efficiency, self-maximization and individual happiness as key cultural values. Having replaced religion and church, medical professionals have obtained new authority over individuals. However, professional logic of medicine today competes with the state logic and the managerial logic of markets. Social definitions of human problems and ways to solve them get formulated at the crossroads of public health needs and profitability. Organizing principles of contemporary medicine serve not only to heal but to accumulate capital. Sociological concepts given in the course highlight alternatives to medicalized and marketized ways of thinking about health, illness, body, pain and suffering, risk behavior, care, and death.
Learning Objectives

Learning Objectives

  • By the end of the course students are expected to 1. Use sociological concepts to explain social issues related to health and illness as political, social and cultural, not simply biological personal events 2. Recognize the historical, economic and cultural embeddedness of medical power in society, identify current social and political processes that produce and support medical authority, notice their seeking-for-power nature, understand their dynamics 3. Critically analyze current social attitudes to different diseases and health-related behavioral patterns in different social groups. 4. Identify peculiarities of medical markets and explain changes in doctor-patients that have taken place with development of consumerism and markets in healthcare. 5. Explain the connections between economic and political settings of contemporary Western society with the design of healthcare and death care infrastructure.
Expected Learning Outcomes

Expected Learning Outcomes

  • Give original empirical examples to illustrate the distinction between illness as an experience of dysfunction and disease as a social experience configurable by cultural ideas about what a dysfunction is about, what are its causes, what behavior has led to it, and what to do now
  • Critically examine the modes of biomedicine as a device of social control used to reduce social deviance and to support dominated social order
  • Critically evaluate the role of medicine and psychiatry in controlling greater forms of human experiences
  • Identify cultural and economic reasons due to which medical profession has obtained its social and political authority
  • Clarify a tension between two ideal types of the medical profession: as a source of medical knowledge, ethics and care and as an expert with the monopoly over certain goods/services
  • Demonstrate the implications of the concept of sick role for sociological reflection on mental and physical disfunctions
  • Prompt various modes of medical colonization of the human body
  • Describe projects of social eugenics through the medicine in contemporary Western societies
  • Demonstrate a critical understanding of sociological approaches on suffering
  • Prompts current ability of social science to see the burden of social world, experienced by individuals
  • Make distinctions between cultural interpretations of suffering in different historical periods and explain social, political and economic reasoning of their dynamic
  • Relying on sociological concepts clarify the social nature of pain and cultural patterns of pain experience
  • Relate the issues of healthy lifestyle with sociological implications on social agency and structure
  • Basing on sociological concepts explain why does biomedicine possess a unique degree of status and power in contemporary society?
  • Identify key socio-economic peculiarities of medical markets as socially entangled institutions for distribution of vital services
  • Explain paradoxes of consumer choice, pricing, doctor-patient trust and complience on medical markets
  • Describe the competition between state, professional and managerial institutional logics in healthcare on empirical examples
  • Critically asses power configurations and conflicts of interests behind the hype over drugs in contemporary pharmaceuticalised culture
  • Explain the rise of social demand for psychological help as a consequence of emotional capitalism
  • Explain why death can never be understood merely as a biological event, without its cultural, medical, legal, and political dimensions
  • Identify economic peculiarities of funeral markets and related social restrictions
  • Describe the connection between socio-economic dynamics in contemporary society and the evolution of death criteria in culture, societies, communities
Course Contents

Course Contents

  • Health, Well-Being, Illness and Disease in Market Society. Between Norm and Pathology for Social Order.
    Market Economy and Market Society. Purity and Danger in Risk Society. Negative Definitions of Health. Shifting Conceptions of Public Health. Health Beliefs and Multiculturalism. Professional and Popular Ideas of Sickness. Illness as Moral Occasion. Between Badness and Sickness. Stigmatization of Sickness. Healthism Culture - a Hope or a Hype?
  • Medicalization as a Cultural Process
    Market Society: What money can’t buy? Individualization Transformation of Social Problems into Treatable Disorders. Pathologization of Life. Medical Definitions of Normality and Social Control. Medicalization of Mental and Emotional State. The Rise of Surveillance Medicine. Hospitals as Spaces of Discipline. Lines of demedicalization
  • Professions of Medicine
    Boys in White. Ethic, Autonomy and Expert Knowledge. The Social Work of Diagnosis. Medical Community and Clinical Bureaucracy. Expert Power in Doctor-Patient Relationships and in Society.
  • Sick Role in the Remission Society
    Sick Role in Classical Sociology, Paternalistic Biomedicine, Consumer Culture and Remission Society. The Self in Chronic Illness. Stigmas of Disability. Illness as a Source of Personal Growth. Trust and Compliance in Doctor-Patient Relationships. Empowerment of Patients. The Patient as a Partner.
  • Commodification of Body
    Human Body in Sociological Theories. A Body-We-Have. A Body-We-Are. A Body-We-Do. Social Meanings of Body Parts. Physical and Bodily Capital as a Factor of Social Inequality and Discrimination. Constructing Ideal Bodies: Beauty, Cosmetic Surgery, and Eating Disorders. How Do Body Parts Become Commodities? Human Organ Transplantation, Commercial Surrogacy, Purchasing Intimacy.
  • Pain and Suffering
    The Politics of Life Itself. Money Value of Human Life: Approaches to Estimation. The Weight of Social World: Suffering classical sociology (Marx on alienation, Durkheim on anomie, Weber on theodicy). Contemporary perspectives on suffering (Bourdieu, Alexander, Bauman, Baudrillard). Quality of Human Life as Social and Political Variable. Suffering as a Social Act. Social Aspects of Pain Experience.
  • Power in Medicine, Healthcare and Beyond
    Challenges of Biomedicine and Competition of Medical Paradigms. Institutional Logics in Healthcare Field: State, Professional, Managerial, Sustainable. Midwifery and Medicalization of Childbirth.
  • Domains of Care
    Patients Agency and Healthy Lifestyle. Life Chances and Life Choices in Different Social Groups. Imagined Futures and Individual Investments into Health. New Medicine: predictive, participatory, personalized. TeleMedicine and TeleHealth. Walmart Medicine and Retail Clinics. Surveillance Capitalism and On-line Medical Platforms.
  • Death in Society
    Social and Political Dimensions of Death. Historical Evolution of Attitudes to Death. “Good Death” and Illusions of Immortality. Cultural Multiplicity of Death Criteria. Awareness of Dying. The Moralization of Economic Scarcity and the Rise of Palliative Care. Morality in the Funeral Markets. Obsequies as the Rituals of Transition. Burial vs Incineration: Economic Predictors of Cultural Choice. Funeral Agencies as Market Actors. Advertisement Ban and High Prices without Bargain. Palliative Care as a Challenge for Biomedicine.
  • The Pill for Every Ill: Pharmaceuticalization as Culture and Social Process
    Pharma in the Bedroom and the Kitchen. Medical Management of Human Body, Mind and Social Efficiency. Markets of Life-Style Drugs. ‘Fact Making’ in Clinical Trials and Post-approval Drug Assessments. Pricing Innovative Drugs.
  • Psychological Help for Neo-Liberal Self
    Capitalization of Self (Physical, Bodily, Erotic, Human, Cultural, Social, Administrative, Consumer, Emotional and Economic Capitals). Individual Self as a Managerial Project. Psychological Trainings for Personal Branding. Experience Economy Social Embeddedness of Emotions. Feeling Rules. Emotional Labor. Emotional Capitalism. Emotional Stratification. Emodities (Emotional Commodities). Manufacturing Depression. Saving Modern Soul: Psychological Therapy and the Culture of Self-Help.
  • Medical Markets
    Uncertainty and the Welfare Economics of Medical Care. Contradictions in the Commodification of hospital care. The Quality Uncertainty, Information Assymetry and Prices. Trust and Complience in Doctor-Patient Relathionships. Mediated Medical Markets: State and Insurance Companies as Payers for Medical Care. Consumption in Healthcare and Divergent Rationalities. To be the Patient not a Consumer. Consumer as a Market Product in Experienced Society.
Assessment Elements

Assessment Elements

  • non-blocking Analytical Essay
    In an auto-ethnographic analytical essay, the students should give a theoretically grounded reflection on the results of self-observation. The educational meaning of writing the essay is to give the students an opportunity to demonstrate their skills of analytical work with empirical facts by applying these facts to interpretation of social theories studied in class. The quality of essay controls student’s knowledge of contemporary concepts of sociology of health and medicine, ability to use them for explanation of empirical facts of social life, understanding of complex nature of self care as socially embedded activity; also the essay validates students’ skills of analytical, interpretative work with theoretical sociological texts and qualitative empirical sociological data. The focus of self-observation relates to the sociological analysis of student’s healthcare decisions. Requirements for the text of the essay: 1) The text should be well-structured and consist of the following parts: Introduction with the statement of research problem; Theoretical framework description based on the following academic texts : Charmaz, K., & Belgrave, L. L. (2019). Thinking About Data With Grounded Theory. Qualitative Inquiry, 25(8), 743–753. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800418809455; Cockerham, W. C. (2005). Health Lifestyle Theory and the Convergence of Agency and Structure. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 46(1), 51–67. https://doi.org/10.1177/002214650504600105; 32. Williams, G.H. (2003) The determinants of health: structure, context and agency, Sociology of Health & Illness, 25, 3, 131–54; 23. Brown R. C.H. (2013) Moral Responsibility for (un)Healthy Behavior. Journal of Medical Ethics, (39): 695–6. Methodological part, that describes the aspect of self-care behaviour chosen for analysis; Analytical part with the sociological essence and conclusion on the self-care practices experienced; Conclusion, summarizing the analytical work done. 3) In terms of interpreting the observation results, the text should be based on academic literature and make a direct reference to it. 4) The text should be written using Times New Roman font, 12 pt, 1.5 spacing, and justified alignment; the recommended volume is up to 3000 characters without spaces.
  • non-blocking Class participation
    It is expected that for each class students will prepare responsive memos on the required readings. These memos should not summarize and retell the text but should bring reflection and insights on the problems raised in the text, connecting conceptual contents of the text with own experience of the student.
  • non-blocking Mid-term Test
  • non-blocking Final Exam
Interim Assessment

Interim Assessment

  • Interim assessment (2 module)
    0.25 * Analytical Essay + 0.25 * Class participation + 0.25 * Final Exam + 0.25 * Mid-term Test


Recommended Core Bibliography

  • Annemarie Mol, John Law, Embodied Action, Enacted Bodies, & The Example. (2008). 2004) ’Embodied Action, Enacted Bodies. The Example of Hypoglycaemia’, The Body and Society 10: 43 62.
  • Armstrong, E. M., Carpenter, D. P., & Hojnacki, M. (2006). Whose Deaths Matter? Mortality, Advocacy, and Attention to Disease in the Mass Media. https://doi.org/10.1215/03616878-2006-002
  • Barney G. Glaser, P. H., PhD, & Anselm L. Strauss. (2015). Awareness of Dying Preface.
  • Bordogna Mara Tognetti. (2014). From Medicalisation to Pharmaceuticalisation - A Sociological Overview. New Scenarios for the Sociology of Health. https://doi.org/10.1515/scr-2015-0002
  • Braillon, A., Lexchin, J., Blumsohn, A., & Hengartner, M. P. (2019). The “pharmaceuticalisation” of life. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l1972
  • Brown, R. C. H. (2013). Moral responsibility for (un)healthy behaviour. https://doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2012-100774
  • Burnham, J. C. (2012). The Death of the Sick Role. https://doi.org/10.1093/shm/hks018
  • Charmaz, K. (2006). Measuring pursuits, marking self: Meaning construction in chronic illness. https://doi.org/10.3402/qhw.v1i1.4906
  • Clarke, A. E., Mamo, L., Fishman, J. R., Shim, J. K., & Fosket, J. R. F. (2003). Biomedicalization: Technoscientific Transformations of Health, Illness and U.S. Biomedicine. American Sociological Review, 68(2), 161–194. https://doi.org/10.2307/1519765
  • Conrad, P. (1992). Medicalization and Social Control. Annual Review of Sociology, 18, 209–232. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.18.080192.001233
  • Correia, T. (2019). Revisiting medicalization: a critique of the assumptions of what counts as medical knowledge. https://doi.org/10.3389/fsoc.2017.00014
  • Coveney, C. M., Williams, S. J., & Gabe, J. (2019). Medicalisation, pharmaceuticalisation, or both? Exploring the medical management of sleeplessness as insomnia. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.12820
  • Curran, J. (2007). Illness as Metaphor; AIDS and its Metaphors. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.39325.562176.94
  • Davis, C. (2015). Drugs, cancer and end-of-life care: A case study of pharmaceuticalization? https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.12.007
  • Eliot Freidson. (1998). Professionalism and Institutional Ethics: Salvaging the Future of American Medecine. Revue Française d’Etudes Américaines, 77(1), 21–37. https://doi.org/10.3406/rfea.1998.1736
  • Francesco N. Gaspa, & Giuliano Pinna. (2013). Pain at the crossroads between nature and culture. Italian Journal of Medicine, 4(2), 145–148. https://doi.org/10.4081/itjm.2010.145
  • Frank, A. W. (2013). From sick role to practices of health and illness. Medical Education, 47(1), 18–25. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2012.04298.x
  • Freidson, E. (1999). Theory of Professionalism: Method and Substance. International Review of Sociology, 9(1), 117. https://doi.org/10.1080/03906701.1999.9971301
  • Heidarnia, M. A., & Heidarnia, A. (2016). Sick Role and a Critical Evaluation of its Application to our Understanding of the Relationship between Physician and Patients.
  • Hochschild, A. (2008). Feeling in sociology and the world.
  • HOCHSCHILD, A. R. (1995). The Culture of Politics: Traditional, Postmodern, Cold-modern, and Warm-modern Ideals of Care. https://doi.org/10.1093/sp/2.3.331
  • Hoppe, T. (2011). Controlling Sex in the Name of “Public Health”: Social Control and Michigan’s HIV Disclosure Law. Conference Papers —— American Sociological Association, 1383.
  • Lane, P., & Smith, D. (2018). Culture, Ageing and the Construction of Pain. https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics3030040
  • Liljegren, A. (2012). Key Metaphors in the Sociology of Professions: Occupations as Hierarchies and Landscapes. Comparative Sociology, 11(1), 88–112. https://doi.org/10.1163/156913312X621631
  • Livne, R. (2014). Death interrupted: Contemporary economies of death and dying.
  • Livne, R. (2014). Economies of Dying: The Moralization of Economic Scarcity in U.S. Hospice Care. American Sociological Review, 79(5), 888–911. https://doi.org/10.1177/0003122414547756
  • Macintyre, S. (1994). Understanding the social patterning of health: the role of the social sciences.
  • Mahajan, M. (2012). The Right to Health as the Right to Treatment: Shifting Conceptions of Public Health. Social Research, 79(4), 819–836.
  • Matza, T. (2019). Governing Habits: Treating Alcoholism in the Post‐Soviet Clinic. Ethos (00912131), 47(2), e1–e3. https://doi.org/10.1111/etho.12243
  • Mik-Meyer, N., & Obling, A. R. (2012). The negotiation of the sick role: general practitioners’ classification of patients with medically unexplained symptoms. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9566.2011.01448.x
  • Newnham, E. C. (2014). Birth control: Power/knowledge in the politics of birth. Health Sociology Review, 23(3), 254–268. https://doi.org/10.1080/14461242.2014.11081978
  • Peggs, A. (n.d.). Multi-species sociology of the body. Journal of Sociology, 54(4), 504.
  • Rafael Antonio Vargas. (2019). Medical Practice and Its Relationship to the Medicalization, Biomedicalization and Technologicalization of Society and Life. https://doi.org/10.22037/jme.v18i1.22477
  • Schilling, C. (2002). Culture, the “sick role” and the consumption of health. British Journal of Sociology, 53(4), 621–638. https://doi.org/10.1080/0007131022000021515
  • Sharp, L. A. (2000). The Commodification of the Body and Its Parts. Annual Review of Anthropology, 29(1), 287. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.29.1.287
  • Sheila Taylor Myers, & Harold G. Grasmick. (2016). The Social Rights and Responsibilities of Pregnant Women: An Application of Parsons’s Sick Role Model. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021886390262005
  • Timmermans, S. (2005). Death brokering: constructing culturally appropriate deaths. Sociology of Health & Illness, 27(7), 993–1013. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9566.2005.00467.x
  • Timmermans, S. (2015). Trust in standards: transitioning clinical exome sequencing from bench to bedside.
  • Timmermans, S., & Haas, S. (2008). Towards a sociology of disease. Sociology of Health & Illness, 30(5), 659–676. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9566.2008.01097.x
  • Tomas Matza. (2018). Shock Therapy : Psychology, Precarity, and Well-Being in Postsocialist Russia. Duke University Press Books.
  • Tracey L Adams. (2015). Sociology of professions: international divergences and research directions. Work, Employment & Society, 1, 154.
  • Turner, B. S. (1991). Review Article: Missing bodies - towards a sociology of embodiment. Sociology of Health & Illness, 13(2), 265–272. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep11340829
  • van Dijk, W., Meinders, M. J., Tanke, M. A. C., Westert, G. P., & Jeurissen, P. P. T. (2020). Medicalization Defined in Empirical Contexts - A Scoping Review. International Journal of Health Policy & Management, 9(8), 327–334. https://doi.org/10.15171/ijhpm.2019.101
  • Wilkinson, I. (2001). Thinking with Suffering. Cultural Values, 5(4), 421. https://doi.org/10.1080/14797580109367242
  • Williams, G. H. (2003). The determinants of health: structure, context and agency. Sociology of Health & Illness, 25(3), 131–154. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.00344

Recommended Additional Bibliography

  • Al-Harthy, M., Ohrbach, R., Michelotti, A., & List, T. (2016). The effect of culture on pain sensitivity. https://doi.org/10.1111/joor.12346
  • Arlie Russell Hochschild. (2012). The Managed Heart : Commercialization of Human Feeling: Vol. Updated, with a new preface. University of California Press.
  • Arney, W. R. (1990). Medical Power and Social Knowledge. By Bryan S. Turner. London: Sage Publications. 256 pp. Cloth, $39.95; paper, $14.95. https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/68.4.1362
  • Barkan, S. E. (2017). Health, Illness, and Society : An Introduction to Medical Sociology. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  • Brown, G. W. (2015). Knowledge, politics and power in global health. International Journal of Health Policy & Management, 4(2), 111–113. https://doi.org/10.15171/ijhpm.2015.20
  • Crossley, M. (1998). “Sick role” or “empowerment”? The ambiguities of life with an HIV positive diagnosis. Sociology of Health & Illness, 20(4), 507. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.00113
  • Defossez, E. (2016). Between Control and Constraint: Charting Three Rhetorics of Patient Agency.
  • Eliot Freidson. (2007). Professionalism : The Third Logic. Polity.
  • Eliot Freidson. (2013). Professionalism Reborn : Theory, Prophecy and Policy. Polity.
  • Freidson, E. (2017). Professional Dominance : The Social Structure of Medical Care. Routledge.
  • Freidson, E., & Lorber, J. (2017). Medical Professionals and the Organization of Knowledge. Routledge.
  • Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (2017). Awareness of Dying. Routledge.
  • Goffman, E. (2009). Stigma : Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. Touchstone.
  • Hochschild, A. R. (1975). The Sociology of Feeling and Emotion: Selected Possibilities. Sociological Inquiry, 45(2/3), 280–307. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-682X.1975.tb00339.x
  • Illouz, E. (2008). Saving the Modern Soul : Therapy, Emotions, and the Culture of Self-Help. Berkeley: University of California Press. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=213396
  • Illouz, E. (2018). Emotions As Commodities : Capitalism, Consumption and Authenticity. London: Routledge. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsebk&AN=1606502
  • Kanno, M. (2003). Japan’s Dying Market Economy. International Economy, 17(3), 91.
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  • Margaret M. Lock. (2002). Twice Dead : Organ Transplants and the Reinvention of Death. University of California Press.
  • Marilyn Webb. (1999). The Good Death : The New American Search to Reshape the End of Life: Vol. Bantam trade ed. Bantam.
  • Oh, H., & Timmermans, S. (2010). The Continued Social Transformation of the Medical Profession. Conference Papers —— American Sociological Association, 512.
  • Pearce, S., & Pickard, H. (2010). Finding the will to recover: philosophical perspectives on agency and the sick role. https://doi.org/10.1136/jme.2010.035865
  • Petersen, A. R., & Bunton, R. (1997). Foucault, Health and Medicine. Routledge.
  • Philippe Aries. (2013). The Hour of Our Death: Vol. Unabridged. Vintage.
  • Powell, J., & Chen, S. (2017). Foucault and technologies of health. https://doi.org/10.15761/tim.1000103
  • Sariola, S., Ravindran, D., Kumar, A., & Jeffery, R. (2015). Big-pharmaceuticalisation: Clinical trials and Contract Research Organisations in India. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.11.052
  • Scheper-Hughes, N. (2003). Keeping an eye on the global traffic in human organs. Lancet, 361(9369), 1645. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13305-3
  • Scheper-Hughes, N. (2008). A Talent for Life: Reflections on Human Vulnerability and Resilience. Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology, 73(1), 25–56. https://doi.org/10.1080/00141840801927525
  • Scheper-Hughes, N. (2009). The tyranny and the terror of the gift: Sacrificial violence and the gift of life. Economic Sociology_the European Electronic Newsletter, 1, 8.
  • Sharp, L., & Sharp, L. A. (2017). The Moral Lives of Laboratory Monkeys: Television and the Ethics of Care. Culture, Medicine & Psychiatry, 41(2), 224–244. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11013-017-9530-2
  • Steiner, P. (2014). “Organic” Gift-Giving and Organ Transplantation, the Development of Economic Sociology and Morality in a Super-Monetized World: An Interview with Philippe Steiner.
  • Steiner, P. (2017). Is Transplantation Tourism a Form of Cannibal Market? Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l’homme.
  • Turner, B. S. (2008). The Body and Society : Explorations in Social Theory: Vol. 3rd ed. SAGE Publications Ltd.
  • Turner, B. S. (2012). Routledge Handbook of Body Studies. Routledge.
  • Williams, S. J. (2012). Parsons revisited: from the sick role to.? https://doi.org/10.1177/1363459305050582
  • Zimmermann, C. (2007). Death denial: obstacle or instrument for palliative care? An analysis of clinical literature. Sociology of Health & Illness, 29(2), 297–314. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9566.2007.00495.x