В монографии рассматриваются вопросы, связанные с изменением ценностей и идентичностей на пост-коммунистическом пространстве.
This paper examines the role of the place of living (urban or rural society) and its social- cultural context in determining the parent- adolescent child value similarity. We interviewed representatives of two generations: parents and children from 90 families in Moscow and 62 families in Russian villages (n=304 people). Our findings indicated the influence of socio- cultural context (urban-rural) on the transmission of values. Conservation values were primarily transmitted from parents to children in the more traditional, rural context. Openness to change, Self-Enhancement and Self-Transcendence values were transmitted from parents to children mainly in the urban context. Perceived psychological closeness between parents and adolescents (as perceived by adolescents) affected the adoption of values by the adolescents in both urban and rural contexts. All values of adolescents were more similar to the values of peers than to their parents, in both urban and rural contexts.
Recent decades were turbulent for the Russian economy. They include a transformational output fall until 1998, a recovery in 1999-2008, and stagnation after the global crisis of 2008. What were main drivers of performance of the Russian economy in these years? Using the conventional industry growth and level accounting, as well as the shift share analysis within the World KLEMS framework, this study highlights three main sources of growth, which are windfall profits from energy export, technology catching up in manufacturing, finance and business services, and the negative influence of expanding informal economy to aggregate labour productivity growth.
The present study reports, that oil and gas money fueled Russian growth in the form of capital services in extended mining and low skill intensive services. The contribution of capital input was higher in years of soaring oil prices. One more factor of growth was catching up, which is rooted in the fact, that Russia, as well as other Central and East European socialist economies (CEEs) on the eve of transition from plan to market, were backwards in technologies in comparison with advanced economies. Similar to CEEs, in years after transition Russian manufacturing over performed the West in productivity growth. This provided a remarkable contribution to aggregate productivity. Before 2008 Russia also gained from TFP growth in Financial and Business services, because the initial level of these sectors was low even in comparison with CEEs. Finally, the remarkable peculiarity of the Russian economy is the expanding share of informal labour, especially in years of outstanding growth before 2008. This makes Russia, to a certain extent, similar to India. Splitting industries into formal and informal segments and estimating the contribution of labour reallocation we report, that expanding informality slowdowns labour productivity growth.
Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis has become the most common technique for assessing measurement invariance. However, higher-order factor modeling is less frequently discussed in this context. In particular, the literature provides only very general guidelines for testing measurement invariance of second-order factor models, which is a prerequisite for conducting meaningful comparative research using higher-order factors. The current paper attempts to fill this gap. First, we explicate the constraints required for identification of the invariance levels in a multiple group second-order factor model. Second, in addition to the conventional interpretation of the results of this assessment, we suggest an alternative view on the invariance properties of a second-order factor as evidence of structural rather than measurement invariance. Third, we present an empirical application of the test which builds on Seeman’s alienation scale and utilizes data from eight countries collected in 2008-2009. We found empirical support for metric invariance of both the first- and second-order factors, but no support for scalar invariance of the first- and second-order factors. However, we find pairs of countries where scalar invariance for both the first- and second-order factors is supported by the data. We finalize with a discussion of the results and their interpretation.
On the eve of transition in the late 1980’s the perspectives of the economic development for most economies of the Soviet Bloc in Central, Southern and Eastern Europe seemed optimistic. They had been already industrialized; their labor force was relatively healthy and educated. Being technological backwards in many industries these countries had lots of opportunities for catch up, extending international trade and allowing the inflow of foreign direct investments. However, after two decades of transition these expectations did not materialize to the fullest extent. On the one hand, by 2008, the last year before the global financial crisis, GDP per capita of all post-transition economies grew, except Moldova and Ukraine. On the other hand, six of the twenty economies of the region increased the lag behind the twelve advanced West European economies (EU12). A reasonable question in this context is to what extent is this backward take-off caused by the command-economy past or some myopic country-specific issues of the post-transition development?
With the growth accounting framework this study confirms the leading role of total factor productivity in late transition at the aggregate level. Delving into industry levels the literature shows that, at least, for some East European economies the key driver of TFP growth in most CEE economies was manufacturing. This is not surprising, because manufacturing was also one of the most technologically backward sectors of the economy in early transition with multiple opportunities for improvements through adaptation of better practices and ways of production from the West. So, catching up in technologies seems to be the most essential driver of the post transition growth.
At the same time, this exposition of the story of growth in transition critically depends on data quality, essential for measurement of economic growth and productivity. That is why it is important also to take into account that transition in economies of the region coincided with the transition in state statistics from the Material Product System of national accounts to the United Nations System of National Accounts. All this is important for understanding of the lim
Данная статья представляет описание процесса адаптации инструментария исследования, посвященного изучению взаимосвязи между различными измерениями бедности и индивидуально-психологическими характеристиками личности, на выборке людей, пребывающих в бедности. Процесс адаптации был выполнен в три этапа и включил в себя: (1) перевод ранее неадаптированных методик на русский язык, (2) проведение когнитивных интервью с людьми, пребывающими в бедности, (3) внесение изменений в инструментарий на основе данных, полученных в ходе когнитивных интервью. Перевод был выполнен методом прямого и обратного перевода, а также командного перевода (committee approach). Когнитивные интервью были проведены методом последовательных проб с использованием как написанных заранее, так и спонтанных вопросов. В работе также приводятся данные проверки методик на надежность (Альфа Кронбаха), и коэффициенты конгруэнтности Такера, свидетельствующие об эквивалентности методик в выборках бедных (N=162) и небедных (N=188) людей. В заключении сформулированы рекомендации исследователям-психологам, работающим или планирующим работать с труднодоступными выборками.
This study tests a model of the socio-economic adaptation of Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium. It examines the roles of language skills and length of stay in Belgium, and of ethnic and religious identification in their acculturation preferences in their adaptation. The study showed that language skills were positively related to preferences for integration and assimilation, while length of stay was negatively related to separation. In turn, integration and assimilation predicted higher socio-economic adaptation, and separation predicted lower adaptation. Ethnic and religious identification also played a role. In sum, more orientation toward the host society (integration and assimilation) promoted better adaptation.
This article examines the proposition that conservatives will be less willing than liberals to apologize and less likely to forgive after receiving an apology. In Study 1, we found evidence for both relationships in a nine-nation survey. In Study 2, participants wrote an open-ended response to a victim of a hypothetical transgression they had committed. More conservative participants were less likely to include apologetic elements in their response. We also tested two underlying mechanisms for the associations: social dominance orientation (SDO) and entity beliefs about human nature. SDO emerged as a stronger and more consistent mediator than entity beliefs. Apologies are theorized to be a rhetorical vehicle for removing power inequities in relationships posttransgression. Consistent with this theorizing, it was those who are relatively high in commitment to equality (i.e., those high in liberal ideology and low in SDO) who are most likely to provide and reward apologies.
The objective of this paper is to outline and compare frameworks for studying post-Soviet transformations developed by social scientists from various disciplines in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The objective is realized by means of quantitative content analysis of scholarly articles’ abstracts in ninety-four journals in eight (inter)disciplinary fields that covers the period of 2001-2015. This paper seeks to answer the question whether differences in the studies of the post-Soviet transformations are defined by country discourse or by the field of study. The research results suggest that there is a two-level mechanism, by which the societal context affects academia, in this case, social sciences and humanities. While general directions of scholarly attention are determined by societal differences, representations of post-Soviet transformations are framed through specific disciplinary lenses that combine both international and post-Soviet features.