Large Hadron Collider: New Hadron Discovery Factory
LHCb, a collaboration of one of Large Hadron Collider experiments, including a team of HSE University researchers, has published a news piece about the discovery of new tetraquarks, which are exotic hadrons consisting of four quarks. This discovery was made possible thanks to massive data samples gathered by the LHCb experiment with the use of algorithms developed at HSE University.
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a 27-km long machine at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), in which protons are accelerated to 0.999999991 of the speed of light and collide in four big experiments. Hadrons (from the Greek word ἁδρός, which means ‘thick, massive’) are a class of particles that include protons – hence the word ‘hardon’ in the LHC name.
Before the 1960s, hadrons were believed to be the elementary particles that comprise matter. Only in 1964 did researchers propose a hypothesis that hadrons may consist of quarks and antiquarks. Combinations of quarks may be in quantum-mechanical state with minimal energy – their main state – but like electrons in atoms, quarks may also be observed in excited states with different angular momentum values and quark spin orientations. Following the tradition of elementary particle physics, all of these quantum states are called hadrons and, more generally, particles.
In the quark model, hadrons consist of two or more quarks bound by strong interaction. They also interact strongly with each other, like protons and neutrons interact in the atomic nucleus, for example. The particles consisting of quark-antiquark couple are called mesons; three quarks (or three antiquarks) – baryons; and four – tetraquarks, which are also called ‘exotic hadrons’. Rarer pentaquarks have also been discovered.
Huge numbers of hadrons appear in proton collisions in the LHC. But to effectively reconstruct and experimentally observe them, high-quality detectors are needed.
The figure from CERN news demonstrates new hadrons discovered on LHC since its launch in 2010. The colour of the symbol next to the hadron name indicates the contents of the particle quarks. Hadrons are grouped by their mass and year of discovery.
Over the 11 years since the LHC has been in operation, scholars on ATLAS, CMS and LHCb research collaborations have discovered 59 hadrons: on average, one every two months. ‘Clearly, the LHC is a Large Hadron Discovery Factory. Fifty-two of the 59 hadrons discovered in the LHC were discovered by LHCb collaboration researchers, which includes a team of scholars from HSE University,’ said Fedor Ratnikov, Leading Research Fellow at the HSE Faculty of Computer Science.
Four more exotic hadrons were added to this list today due to LHCb collaboration. Two of these new tetraquarks, Zcs (4000) + and Zcs (4220) +, consist of (c anti-cus). The other two new tetraquarks, X (4685) and X (4630), consist of c anti-c and s anti-s quarks.
HSE University joined the LHCb experiment in 2018. The group based at the HSE Faculty of Computer Science, together with researchers from the Yandex School of Data Analysis, has done significant work to optimize the selection of interesting events in real time and to improve the quality of identifying various types of particles in the detector. Much of the data necessary for discoveries on LHCb is processed by algorithms developed at the Faculty.
‘This and some other improvements have become possible thanks to the highest expertise in machine learning methods that has been accumulated by the Faculty of Computer Science and used to ensure the best physical results on the experiment,’ said Fedor Ratnikov.
Today, LHC is undergoing considerable modernization. The start of the next session of the collider operation is scheduled in a year. Research teams are preparing experiments to collect new data as they implement new cutting-edge processing methods and new discoveries.
The Human Capital Multidisciplinary Research Centre will organize a series of presentations and roundtable discussions as part of theXXII HSE April Conference, which will take place from April 13 to 30, 2021.
HSE and Sberbank Will Host the April International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development
From April 13 – 30, 2021, the XXII April International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development (AIAC) will be held in Moscow. For the first time, the conference will be co-organized by HSE University and Sberbank.
The collective volume Place and Nature: Essays in Russian Environmental History, co-edited by David Moon, Nicholas B. Breyfogle, and HSE researcher Alexandra Bekasova, was recently presented at a seminar of the Laboratory for the Environmental and Technological History of the Centre for Historical Research at HSE – St. Petersburg. The book is one of the fruits of a networking project carried out in 2013-2016 with active participation of HSE researchers.
The research and development of new approaches to antitrust regulation in the digital sector, the agro-industrial sector, the pharmaceutical industry, and other markets remain the main focus of the work of the BRICS Competition Law and Policy Centre, which operates within HSE University. The Centre's Supervisory Board recently endorsed its work conducted over the past year and supported its agenda for this year.
On March 28-31, 2021, the HSE International Laboratory ‘Russia’s Regions in Historical Perspective’ held an international conference ‘The Russian Far East: Regional and Transnational Perspectives (19th -21st cent.)’. The event was jointly organized by the Laboratory with the German Historical Institute Moscow, Indiana University Bloomington (USA), and the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Peoples of the Far East FEB RAS (Vladivostok).
HSE University has signed cooperation agreements with two of the world's leading research centres, NISTEP (Japan) and TIFAC (India), which provide their governments with analytical support to inform science and technology forecasting and science and technology policy.
What has been the impact of the pandemic on the international relations of universities? Who should manage the internationalization of research at universities? Can a local university influence the global academic agenda? Participants of the round table ‘Internationalization of Research in Digital Reality’, which took place on March 30, sought to answer these and other questions. The event was organized byHSE University - St. Petersburg.
Having partner companies is an important factor in the competitiveness of any Master’s programme. One of the partners of the programme ‘Germanica: History and Modernity’, which launched last year at the Faculty of Humanities, is the Russian-German Chamber of Commerce. Already in their first year of study, several students have been hired by the Chamber as interns.
‘In Contemporary History, World Championships and Olympic Games Were Canceled Only During World Wars’
At the 7th International Research and Practical Conference ‘Sports Management in the Face of Uncertainty’, organized by HSE University, industry and government representatives discussed the impact of the pandemic on the sports industry, its future, and the problem of doping.
In Russia, 2021 was declared the Year of Science and Technology. HSE has always paid special attention to the development of science, and more than 40 international laboratories have played an important role in the development of the university as a world research centre. One of the University’s first such laboratories was theRonald F. Inglehart Laboratory for Comparative Social Research (LCSR), named after its academic supervisor at the time, American sociologist and political scientist Ronald Inglehart. HSE News Service spoke with LCSR Laboratory Head and professor of sociology Eduard Ponarin (HSE – St. Petersburg) about the Laboratory’s work over the past decade.