HSE Professors on How to Protect Spaceships
At the end of July, Professor Andrey Tyutnev of HSE’s Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics (MIEM) became the only Russian presenter at the13th Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference organized in California under the auspices of NASA. Professor Tyutnev presented two reports prepared with colleagues from the Higher School of Economics and the Lavochkin Research and Production Association.
Tyutnev prepared the report ‘Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Radiation-induced Conductivity in Spacecraft Polymers’ together with Evgeny Pozhidaev and Vladimir Saenko from MIEM’s Laboratory of Space Vehicles and Systems' Functional Safety. The report was a culmination of fundamental research in the creation and analysis of the properties of space materials, in particular dielectric materials. The use of such materials on spacecrafts prevents the emergence of electrostatic discharge, which leads to onboard radio-electronic equipment failures.
The second report, ‘The Protection of the Spectr-R Spacecraft against ESD Effects Using the “Satellite-MIEM” Computer Code,’ was devoted to Spectr-R’s system of defense against the damaging effects of electrostatic discharge. The system was created by scientists from HSE and the Lavochkin Research and Production Association and has already been in operation for three years.
‘The surfaces of spacecraft located in geosynchronous and highly elliptical orbits are significantly charged (called ESD susceptibility) upon contact with space plasma, especially during geomagnetic storms and substorms. As a result, there is electromagnetic interference that leads to short-term disturbances and failures in radio-electronic hardware, as well as to a distortion in information and control signals, and in some cases to on-board devices being physically damaged. It is because of the ESD susceptibility of spacecraft that 24% of all equipment failures take place. Research and development is taking place in our research laboratory that is aimed at solving this problem,’ the Academic Supervisor of MIEM’s Laboratory of Space Vehicles and Systems' Functional Safety,Evgeny Pozhidaev, said.
An agreement in principle was reached with representatives from the French branch of the European Space Agency (CNES, Toulouse) and universities from the U.S. to conduct joint academic research in creating and studying the properties of space materials. Agreement was also reached on undergraduate and postgraduate student exchanges.
The achievements made by the team from MIEM’s Laboratory of Space Vehicles and Systems' Functional Safety were also presented at theCOSPAR Scientific Assembly, which took place in Moscow at the beginning of August and brought together leading specialists in the fields of astrophysics, space exploration, astrobiology and medicine. In a joint report with Lev Novikov of Moscow State University’s Skobeltsyn Institute for Nuclear Physics, HSE Professors Andrey Tyutnev and Vladimir Saenko described how polymer materials are modified for subsequent use in space under the conditions of the earth’s radiation belts.
Anastasia Chumak, HSE News Service
During the ‘Big Challenges’ session at the Sirius Educational Centre, five high school students, under the supervision of mentors from MIEM HSE, assembled a small artificial earth satellite. The participants of the research session were young finalists of a nationwide competition held by the educational centre. All five of the students are Olympiad champions and team members of large-scale projects.
The results of recent study conducted by the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the agency’s automatic interplanetary station, show the existence of a ‘permafrost’ near the poles of the Moon with a relatively high content of water ice (up to 5% by weight). It is believed that water ice could supply a life support system for the future Russian Lunar Station and that it could also produce hydrogen-oxygen fuel for flights into deep space.
Researchers from the Higher School of Economics and Space Research Institute (Russia) have calculated the main parameters that determine space weather close to the nearest Earth-like exoplanet, Proxima Centauri b. Such parameters include solar wind, as well as galactic and solar cosmic rays. The results of the research were published in Astronomy Letters.
The big scanning antenna at the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory logs almost 90 GB of data every day. The data are usually processed by the astronomers manually. Vladimir Samodurov and Alexander Gorbunov, researchers at the HSE Faculty of Business and Management, decided to relieve the scholars from this hard work and give this job to neural networks. They shared the results of their work in the paper ‘Perspectives of intellectual processing of large volumes of astronomical data using neural networks’.
Researchers from the Laboratory of Methods for Big Data Analysis (LAMBDA) at the Higher School of Economics have improved their way of analyzing ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) with the use of mobile phones. The work has been carried out as part of the CRAYFIS experiment and the results were presented at the 22nd International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics.
The Higher School of Economics is welcoming its first class of students to the Faculty of Physics. The new faculty is unique in that it fosters a close relationship between education and science. At the Space Research Institute, for instance, future master’s students will create devices to study space plasma, analyse data from satellites, and learn to determine space weather.
HSE’s Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics has opened a university Microsatellite Flight Control Center. Its main goal is to offer students practical experience with small space devices that work in near-earth orbits. It was created jointly with the company Sputniks.
On November 7-9, Astana hosted the third International Conference of the Eurasian Association for Educational Assessment (EAOKO), one of the organizers of which was HSE's Institute of Education.
In St. Petersburg, the third international conference ‘Industrial Organization and Spatial Economics’, organized by the HSE’s “International Laboratory for the Theory of Markets and Spatial Economics” has come to an end. The participants talked about how to study competition, the similarities and differences of regional economies, and whether it is possible to create a robot-economist.
A young scientists’ conference organized by the European Consortium for Political Research recently took place at the University of Innsbruck (Austria). Students of the HSE Institute of Education’s Master’s programme on Contemporary Political Conflicts organized a session called ‘Political Power & Foreign Policy Analysis’.