NEET Youth: What Happens When People Lack Diligence, Emotional Stability and Perseverance
Demand for higher education increases with the development of technologies that replace routine labour, and there is already increased demand for specialists in the IT industry today. At the same time, some university graduates neither study nor work, while about one third of this ‘free’ youth cohort lives in poverty (as do their parents). This topic was discussed at the XXIII Yasin International Academic Conference session on human capital and salaries.
She said that technological development leads to considerable changes in the list of high-demand skills. Consequently, the numbers of employees with high, average and low levels of skills are changing, as is the correlation of their salaries. Job market indicators can be considered a determinant of the demand for higher education.
According to the study, the dynamics of this demand can mostly be explained by the dynamics of employment among employees with average levels of skills. Their number grew fastest in developing countries in 1998–2005 (on average 9% annually), with concurrent fast growth also observed in the share of university students (on average 7% annually). Researchers believe that the reason for this is the distribution of technologies that replace routine labour. In subsequent years, the rates decreased simultaneously in both spheres.
Research fellows of Southern Federal University Marina Masych and Karen Avanesyan presented a paper on non-cognitive skills among NEET (Not in Education, Employment, or Training) young people in Russia. This term describes people aged 15–29 who are not students and are unemployed. Statistical data shows that the share of NEET people does not depend on the economic levels of their countries of residence.
The researchers focused on non-cognitive skills in this cohort, ie persistent personality characteristics such as diligence, emotional stability, perseverance, extraversion etc. Economists, psychologists and sociologists say that such skills impact levels of education, academic performance, choice of profession, employment and salary.
55% of NEET people in Russia are female, and over 60% live in rural areas. 17% of them have a university degree, and 29% come from the poorest cohort of families, which is a sign of insufficient vertical social mobility in Russian society.
The study showed that NEET people fall most behind their peers in three key skills: diligence, emotional stability and perseverance. A smaller gap is observed in extraversion and alternative thinking. NEET people are also more inclined to interpret other people’s intentions as hostile.
Empirical measurements confirm that these skills are flexible and able to transform and develop under targeted impact. This means that it is possible to develop public programmes to support this vulnerable cohort of young people. The development of non-cognitive skills could be one way to help these people overcome poverty.
Sofia Paklina, Junior Research Fellow at the HSE University in St Petersburg International Laboratory of Intangible-driven Economy, studied the Russian IT labour market, particularly the impact of candidates’ expectations on their negotiated salaries.
Until recently, there were two key mechanisms for establishing salaries in the Russian labour market: negotiations or a fixed amount that is non-negotiable. Both are based on the assumption that the employer has the exclusive right to establish the initial salary offer. But this assumption no longer reflects the real development scenarios of the job market, where it is increasingly common for candidates to actively articulate their expected compensation to the employer.
The federal service ‘Work in Russia’ registers a 40% increase in the number of published CVs every year. The IT industry is growing the fastest, which means that employees have many alternative job options and employee turnover in the profession is increasing. The demand for IT professionals has reinforced their salaries even during the pandemic, which is why they are not afraid to change jobs or pursue more promising projects. The study showed that one additional advanced computer skill increases expected salaries by an average of 4.9%.
‘There Is a Big Question as to What Extent a Human Is Still a Human and a Machine Is Still a Machine’
Will new technologies divide or unite people and society? What mechanisms should be used to balance society’s interests and progress so that innovation does not dehumanize humans? How should interaction between humans and AI be structured? Is all technology good for people? TheXXIII Yasin (April) International Academic Conference of HSE University discusses these questions and more.
As part of the XXIII Yasin (April) International Academic Conference, HSE University held a meeting between HSE scholars and Anton Kotyakov, Minister of Labour and Social Protection of the Russian Federation. The title of the meeting was ‘The Future of Social Security: Trends and Forecasts.’ The experts and the Minister discussed the experience and lessons learned from population support initiatives during the pandemic, social protection efforts to reduce poverty and inequality, measures to counter sanctions, and the situation in the labour market.
The number of older persons and their life expectancy are on the rise in many countries worldwide. As they age, some people need assistance with daily living activities, something their family is not always capable of providing. This creates a demand for professional long-term care that integrates medical and social services. How Russia can benefit from other countries' experience of providing public long-term care is discussed in a report* presented by the HSE Centre for Social Policy Studies at the XXIII Yasin International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development hosted by the HSE University.
In Mexico, a pilot project applying artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms enabled the Tax Administration Service to detect 1200 tax-evading companies and 3500 fraudulent transactions within three months – a task that would have taken 18 months using conventional methods. Despite some obvious benefits, the use of AI-based solutions to counter corruption also entails several challenges, according to experts of the HSE Laboratory for Anti-Corruption Policy (LAP) and the HSE Faculty of Law who have examined the relevant experience of several countries. A report based on the study’s* findings was presented at the XXIII Yasin (April) International Academic Conference hosted by the Higher School of Economics.
HSE University academics held a discussion with Maxim Oreshkin, presidential aide and graduate of the HSE University, as part of theXXIII Yasin (April) International Academic Conference. They talked about the current socioeconomic situation and the future of Russia's development. The discussion was moderated by HSE Academic SupervisorYaroslav Kuzminov.
What risks is the Russian financial system facing today? What is the Central Bank of Russia going to do to mitigate them? Why do we need a high key rate? Has the regulator changed its approach to the building of forex reserves? Will the regulator remain hawkish on cryptocurrencies? Ksenia Yudaeva, First Deputy Governor of the Central Bank of Russia, answered these and other questions during a round table entitled ‘Russia’s Financial Sector under New Global Conditions’. The event was held as part of the XXIII Yasin (April) International Academic Conference.
‘The Northern Sea Route Is an Efficient Transport Communication Channel to Deliver Goods Sold on Trade Platforms’
The Northern Sea Route has a key role to play in developing Russia's export potential in the Asia-Pacific region. As the current situation requires a reorientation of export flows from Europe to Asia, this route is taking on a new significance in the search for effective transport communication with Indian and Chinese markets. An Arctic Research session was held at the XXIII Yasin International Academic Conference.
In recent years, advanced technologies for creating deepfake images have made it almost impossible to distinguish them from real photos and videos. Researchers discussed the future development of deepfakes and how to protect yourself from new types of fraud during the round-table discussion ‘Fake News: An Interdisciplinary Approach’ as part of the XXIII Yasin (April) International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development.
The Arctic is not only a strategic outpost in geopolitical affairs, but also a region with difficult living conditions. At the same time, global warming causes melting of glaciers and permafrost, changes in terrain, environmental pollution and negatively affects the living conditions of indigenous peoples. These and other topics were discussed at the session ‘Problems of Arctic Development’ at the XXIII Yasin (April) International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development.
‘As We Fight Climate Change and Poverty, the Focus on Personal, rather than Social Goals, may Prove Harmful over Time’
The 11th International LCSR Workshop of the HSE Ronald F. Inglehart Laboratory for Comparative Social Research, ‘Recent Advances in Comparative Study of Values’, took place as part of the XXIII Yasin (April) International Academic Conference. HSE News Service talked about the study of values and current changes in academic life with Ronald Fischer, who presented an honorary paper ‘Why We Should Aim for Systematic Non-Invariance in Cross-Cultural Research’ at the workshop.